Tricia’s snippets 2011-09-15

From WaterLink International 08-09-2011

Stockholm Statement at Close of WWW29/08/2011
The 2011 World Water Week in Stockholm closed on Friday 26th August with assembled participants supporting the ‘Stockholm Statement’, which calls on leadership at all levels of government that will participate at the Rio+20 Summit (4-6th June 2012) to commit to achieving “universal provisioning of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and modern energy services by the year 2030”.

The targets include to be achieved by the year 2020: 20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency; 20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture; 20% increase in water use efficiency in energy production; 20% increase in the quantity of water reused and 20% decrease in water pollution

The ‘Stockholm Statement’ has been supported by UN-Water, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and endorsed by a number of international organisations, including: Conservation International, International Water Management Institute, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Stakeholder Forum, Stockholm International Water Institute, Wateraid and Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), among others.

Website: http://www.worldwaterweek.org/documents/WWW_PDF/2011/2011-Stockholm-Statement.pdf

Supplier: Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI)

Ultrasound to Control Algae  07/09/2011
The LG Sonic device can be used to control algae in large volumes of water with ultrasound. These products have been on the market for many years to control algae in different applications such as aquaculture, wastewater, drinking water, cooling towers and lakes, and recent innovations ensure that the devices are as efficient and user-friendly as possible.

Supplier: LG Sound

Back to the Future; Water Strategy in 2030  05/09/2011
Akzo Nobel, DSM, Shell and Unilever are sending their top leaders to the Industrial Leaders Forum during the International Water Week on 3rd November 2011. For the first time these global leaders come together with the water industry to create a positive dialogue, to stimulate innovation and to develop a road map to identify crucial necessary advances in order to make the most efficient use of available water resources.

The IWW takes place at Amsterdam RAI Exhibition & Convention Centre, the Netherlands, and throughout Amsterdam and the Netherlands from 29th October 2011 up to and including 4th November 2011.

In an inspiring and interactive session the four leaders (Akzo Nobel, DSM, Shell and Unilever) together with leaders of the water industry (Arcadis/Malcolm Pirnie, Dow Water Solutions and Amiad) will take place in the panel that will lead the discussion on how to make the best and most efficient use of available water resources in the years leading up to 2030. How to treat water in the production process, and maybe even more importantly, how to deal with waste water and the re-use of water.

In “Back Casting”, looking back from 2030, the industrial leaders will present how they have been very successful with the continuous development of their water strategy. First by defining the success, then looking at the innovation, technology developments, partnerships and legislation that have enabled this.

Website: http://www.internationalwaterweek.com

Supplier: Amsterdam RAI

Somalia May Have Normal Rains In Coming Months  08/09/2011
Normal to above-normal rainfall could return to famine-ravaged southern Somalia over the next three months but there may not yet be much easing of the drought there since the September-to-December rains are a relatively small part of the annual total, the United Nations reported on Wednesday 8th September 2011.

Supplier: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

First Green Reverse Osmosis System

06/09/2011

IDE Technologies launched IDE Progreen, a green reverse osmosis (RO) system for water desalination. Representing a clean and economical approach to high-quality water production, IDE Progreen reduces operational costs and increases ROI by optimising energy consumption, eliminating the use and handling of chemicals, and offering a customisable, self-maintained platform. This results in affordable, sustainable, high-quality water for applications worldwide including industry, agriculture and drinking water.
IDE Progreen overcomes the challenges of minimising desalination impact on the environment by eliminating the use of chemicals in the pre-treatment and desalination processes. The new water production system is compact and flexible, which makes it easy to transport and install. This reduces costs and eliminates the need to invest in expensive infrastructure. The patented RO Membrane Direct Osmosis Cleaning (DOC) system reduces the amount of energy consumed in the desalinationprocess, and enables chemical-free membrane cleaning for uninterrupted operation and stable performance, which increases the system’s availability.IDE Progreen helps to further save money by utilising efficient pumps, coupled with an energy recovery system, to reduce energyconsumption. The modular product is designed for capacities ranging from 500 to 10,000 cubic metres per day per unit, depending on water type; and is available containerized or skid-mounted, depending on the capacity.The new IDE Progreen system will be available by the end of 2011.

Supplier: IDE Technologies

 

From WSP:

Sanitation marketing tool kit: http://www.wsp.org/wsp/toolkit/toolkit-home

Scaling up rural sanitation: publications and tools: http://www.wsp.org/wsp/global-initiatives/publications-and-tools-0#learning

 

From Sanitation Updates:

Bangladesh: BRAC video shows importance of school sanitation for girls

Posted: 08 Sep 2011 07:16 AM PDT

This new 9 minute video shows how BRAC is addressing high absenteeism rates among female students through a water, sanitation and hygiene programme in nearly 3,000 schools across rural Bangladesh. The programme includes menstrual hygiene facilities.

African Water Facility Call for Concept Notes on Sanitation Improvement for Urban Poor

Posted: 08 Sep 2011 05:02 AM PDT

The African Water Facility (AWF) has issued a Call for Concept Notes under the urban sanitation theme for the urban poor in Sub-Saharan Africa.

 

WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH
VOL 47; NUMB 7; 2011
ISSN 0043-1397

p. W07517

Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water availability.

van Beek, L.P.H.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

[1] Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR‐GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields for the period 1958–2001. To represent blue water availability, a prognostic reservoir operation scheme was included in order to produce monthly time series of global river discharge modulated by reservoir operations. To specify green water availability for irrigated areas, actual transpiration from the model was used. Thus, the computed water availability reflects the climatic variability over 1958–2001 and is contrasted against the monthly water demand using the year 2000 as a benchmark in the companion paper. As the water that is withdrawn to meet demand directly interferes with blue water availability along the drainage network, this paper evaluates model performance for three regimes reflecting different degrees of human interference: natural discharge, discharge regulated by reservoirs, and modified discharge. In the case of modified discharge, the net blue water demand for the year 2000 is subtracted directly from the regulated discharge, taking water demand equal to consumptive water use. Results show that model simulations of monthly river discharge compare well with observations from most of the large rivers. Exceptions are basins subject to large extractions for irrigation purposes, where simulated discharge exceeds the observations even when water demand is taken into account. Including the prognostic reservoir operation scheme results in mixed performance, with a poorer approximation of peak flows but with a marginally better simulation of low flows and persistence. A comparison of simulated actual evapotranspiration with that from the ERA‐40 reanalysis as a proxy for observed rates shows similar patterns over nonirrigated areas but substantial deviations over major irrigated areas. As expected, assimilated actual evapotranspiration over these areas includes water from alternative sources, whereas the simulations with PCR‐GLOBWB are limited by soil moisture, i.e., green water availability. On the basis of this evidence we conclude that the simulation provides adequate fields of water availability to assess water stress at the monthly scale, for which a separate validation is provided in the companion paper.

 

p. W07518

Global monthly water stress: 2. Water demand and severity of water stress.

Wada, Y.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Viviroli, D.; Durr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

1] This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted with global monthly water demand. Water demand is defined here as the volume of water required by users to satisfy their needs. Water demand is calculated for the benchmark year of 2000 and contrasted against blue water availability, reflecting climatic variability over the period 1958–2001. Despite the use of the single benchmark year with monthly variations in water demand, simulated water stress agrees well with long‐term records of observed water shortage in temperate, (sub)tropical, and (semi)arid countries, indicating that on shorter (i.e., decadal) time scales, climatic variability is often the main determinant of water stress. With the monthly resolution the number of people experiencing water scarcity increases by more than 40% compared to conventional annual assessments that do not account for seasonality and interannual variability. The results show that blue water stress is often intense and frequent in densely populated regions (e.g., India, United States, Spain, and northeastern China). By this method, regions vulnerable to infrequent but detrimental water stress could be equally identified (e.g., southeastern United Kingdom and northwestern Russia).

 

WATER RESEARCH
VOL 45; NUMBER 16; 2011
ISSN 0043-1354

pp. 4683-4699

Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

Latif, M. A.; Ghufran, R.; Wahid, Z. A.; Ahmad, A.

Abstract:

The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.

Title: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Water Management Policies in Bangladesh

by Pal, Sudip K; Adeloye, Adebayo J; Babel, Mukand S; Das Gupta, Ashim
International Journal of Water Resources Development [Int. J. Water Resour. Dev.]. Vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 401-417. Jun 2011.

Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process

Abstract
Water resources development and management policies initiatives in Bangladesh are primarily driven by the need for sufficient food grain production for the country’s teeming population and curtailing the perennial flooding problems. It is therefore necessary to investigate whether or not these objectives are being met. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of past water resources development and management strategies on agriculture, food security, flood management and socio-economic development in Bangladesh. The research is based on the historical data of the relevant parameters of the water resources management over the period 1947-2005. The outcomes of the study demonstrate that past policies and strategies of water development have resulted in significant irrigation expansion, especially through intensified groundwater utilization, which has helped to achieve the country’s primary objective of self-sufficiency in food production. However, the provision of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities still remains a challenge in the country. Similarly, the impact of the flood control policies was diverse with success mostly apparent with regard to protection against modest events, while catastrophic, extreme events still effectively defying answer.

Title: Actuality of Sanitation of Centralized Water Supply in Rural Areas in Lanzhou, Gansu

by Wang, Jin-Yu; Li, Sheng; Yu, Jia-Lin; Li, Zhi-Qiang
Journal of Environment and Health [J. Environ. Health]. Vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 417-419. May 2011.

Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Drinking water; Rural areas; Sanitation; Turbidity; Water resources; Water sampling; Water supplies; dry season; rainy season

Abstract
Objective: To know the actuality of sanitation of centralized water supply in rural areas in Lanzhou, Gansu. Methods: A survey on the basic conditions (type of water resources, way of water treatment, disinfection, et al) were conducted in 86 rural centralized water supply sites in Lanzhou, and the samples of water sources and tap water were collected in dry season (March to April) and rainy reason (July to August) were analyzed from 2008 to 2010. Results: The qualified rate of water samples was 33.4% (115/344). The rate of water samples in rainy season was significantly lower than that in dry season (P<0.01), no significant difference was seen in qualified rate between finished water and tap water. pH value, Fe, Mn, As and F were all qualified, and 14 indexes including turbidity and so on were all disqualified. The qualified rate of total numbers of colony was the lowest (50.3%). The qualified rates of total numbers of colony and total coli group in rainy season were all lower than those in dry season (P<0.01). Conclusion: Severe microbe contamination is a critical problem in centralized water supply in the rural areas in Lanzhou, which should be paid more attention to.

Title: Critical evaluation of planning frameworks for rural water and sanitation development projects

by Barnes, Rebecca; Roser, David; Brown, Paul
Development in Practice [Dev. Pract.]. Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 168-189. Apr 2011.

Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process

Abstract
Poor initial planning processes have been implicated in the high failure rate of rural water and sanitation development projects. This article critically examines 17 existing planning frameworks for rural water supply and sanitation projects with respect to key attributes of good planning practice, in order to discover the extent to which these address the elements of planning that relate to sustainability. It identifies sustainability-related factors from the sector that have been recognised as such and incorporated into current frameworks, as well as factors that are not yet well covered, and makes recommendations to practitioners wishing to employ such frameworks.

Title: The transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

by Nelson, Eric Jorge
Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol. 71, no. 06, suppl. B, 253 p. 2010.

Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process

Abstract
Understanding the transmission of cholera has importance for public health officials attempting to provide sanitation in a resource-scarce environment, and for the vaccinologist attempting to improve vaccine efficacy. Vibrio cholerae is the etiologic agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. V. cholerae is a facultative pathogen that resides in the environment, and on occasion, finds its way into the human host where the actions of cholera toxin cause devastating dehydration and mortality rates that reach 40%. With simple rehydration therapy, mortality rates drop below 1%. Three critical factors affect, or are likely to affect, transmission: (i) the culturability of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment, (ii) the increased infectivity of in vivo derived V. cholerae, and (iii) lytic vibriophage that prey on V. cholerae. The first goal of this thesis was to quantify these factors upon passage from the human host into the aquatic environment. The second goal was to assess the relevance of any one factor in relation to the other factors. The data reveal a model for transmission that pertains to events inside and outside the human host. Inside the host, the model suggests that V. cholerae multiply in the small intestine to produce a fluid niche that is dominated by V. cholerae. If lytic phage are present, culturable counts of V. cholerae drop, and other microorganisms bloom. Outside, in the pond water, the model suggests that a loss of culturable cells (for reasons independent of phage) and a rise of lytic phage block transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment. Future research on rice-water stools that harbor both low titers (included in this work) and high titers (not included) of phage will provide further understanding of the impact of lytic phage on transmission. The model proposed herein is supported by epidemiological findings that suggest if an index cholera case passes lytic phage in his/her stool (assayed by darkfield microscopy as a proxy for lytic phage) household contacts are at a decreased risk of being infected with V. cholerae. These findings should provide public health officials with a renewed sense of urgency and an opportunity for sanitary interventions. In terms of vaccine development, transcriptional analysis traced the transformation of V. cholerae as the bacteria passage from patients into the aquatic environment. The nature of the final transcriptome in pond water was a function of the source from which the cells were derived. This finding is important to the vaccinologist because producing a vaccine with ‘environmental’ antigens from in vitro derived bacteria may not yield the same ‘environmental’ antigens from patient derived bacteria. Therefore, a vaccine that has antigens relevant to those expressed by V. cholerae in the natural environment may be more difficult to produce than originally considered. Diarrheal disease continues to be the second most common cause of death among children under 5 years of age globally–it is the leading cause of morbidity. I hope these public health and vaccine-oriented findings find relevance to the poverty stricken households of Bangladesh in the near future.

Title: Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.

by Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof
Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, August 2011, 29(8):815-822

Abstract
Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People’s attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.