Tricia’s snippets 2011-09-23

From Sanitation Updates:

 CLOO – new app uses social media to share toilets
Danish company gets Sida grant to sell menstrual cups in Kenya
WSP – Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing
WEDC – Inclusive design of school latrines
Bangladesh: Sanitation and Hygiene – Challenges and Solutions
Special Bulletin: Global Forum on Sanitation and Hygiene, 9-14 October 2011, Mumbai, India

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

In developing the fourth edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, the following chemical background documents have been revised:

Acrylamide –
Arsenic –
Atrazine –
Cadmium –
Hardness –
Lead –
Manganese –
Molybdenum –
Monochloramine –
Permethrin –
Selenium –


From WaterLink International:

“Drought in China: What are the facts?” Webinar


GEOSYS, France, is organising on 4th October 2011, a webinar dedicated to drought in China. From a practical stand point, Internet users will be able to connect themselves as early as 10:00am (GMT +1), to follow GEOSYS’ presentations, then to ask questions and debate with them until 11:00am. The webinar will be held in English.
 Agribusinesses interested in this issue will benefit from exclusive information on one of the least known agriculture production zones in the world. Indeed, very little information is available on China, be it on its levels of production or on the real climate of the past several months. And, if there is evidence of droughtin a country whose population amounts for one fifth of the global one, the impact will be very real on world commodity markets. In such a hypothesis, Beijing would need to proceed with mass importation, thereby modifying considerably traditional economic balances. Website:
Supplier: Geosys SA


VOL 36; NUMB 4; 2011
ISSN 0250-8060
(whole issue devoted to wastewater irrigation)
2 examples:
pp. 420-440
Towards an agenda for improving wastewater use in agriculture.
Scheierling, S.M.; Bartone, C.R.; Mara, D.D.; Drechsel, P.

pp. 535-548
Cost-effectiveness of options for reducing health risks in areas where food crops are irrigated with treated or untreated wastewater.
Drechsel, P.; Seidu, R.

VOL 9; NUMB 3; 2011
ISSN 1477-8920

pp. 429-433
Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.
Pickering, A.J.; Davis, J.; Boehm, A.B.

pp. 467-482
Combining modeling and monitoring to study fecal contamination in a small rural catchment.
Bougeard, M.; Le Saux, J.-C.; Teillon, A.; Belloir, J.; Le Mennec, C.; Thome, S.; Durand, G.; Pommepuy, M.

pp. 525-533
Quality assessment of roof-harvested rainwater in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority.
Daoud, A.K.; Swaileh, K.M.; Hussein, R.M.; Matani, M.

pp. 577-585
Microbiologic effectiveness of boiling and safe water storage in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Sodha, S.V.; Menon, M.; Trivedi, K.; Ati, A.; Figueroa, M.E.; Ainslie, R.; Wannemuehler, K.; Quick, R.
pp. 609-616
Assessing the potential risks of burial practices on groundwater quality in rural north-central Nigeria.
Zume, J.T.


Desalination [Desalination]. Vol. 273, no. 2-3, pp. 316-320. 15 Jun 2011.
Title: Development of low cost household drinking water treatment system for the earthquake affected communities in Northern Pakistan
by Mahmood, Qaisar; Baig, Shams Ali; Nawab, Bahadar; Shafqat, Mustafa Nawaz; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima
Article Subject Terms:; Communities; Drinking water; Households; Low cost; Sand; Seismic phenomena; Turbidity; Water quality
The devastating earthquake of 2005 severely damaged over 4000 water and sanitation schemes in northern Pakistan. The present study aimed at testing a low cost household sand filter (HSF) in treating low quality drinking water in disaster-hit areas of northern Pakistan. Two villages were randomly selected for practical demonstration of a low cost drinking water treatment system in earthquake affected areas. The on-site performance of HSF was monitored during the operational period. The data was collected on people perceptions of water quality and handling of the household sand filter (HSF) through in depth focus group discussions, questionnaire and interviews. The results showed that pre-treatment values of drinking water for Escherichia coli, total coliforms and turbidity were 101cfu/100ml, 73cfu/100ml and turbidity 44 and 16 NTU, respectively. After HSF operation for 10days, 97% reduction in E. coli, total coliforms and turbidity was evidenced. More than 67% of the respondents perceived turbidity as a prime water quality issue responsible for ill health consequences. It was concluded that the designed HSF was efficient in improving drinking water quality for illiterate communities and its success and dissemination to poor communities were prone to locally available construction materials.


VOL 27; NUMBER 3; 2011
ISSN 0790-0627
pp. 431-462
Governance of Transboundary Aquifers: Balancing Efficiency, Equity and Sustainability.
Brooks, D.; Linton, J.
Though most rules developed for governance of transboundary surface water will also apply to transboundary aquifers, adjustment is necessary to account for, among other things, paucity of data about aquifers, their sensitivity to contamination, and their potential to be treated as open access resources. This article explores those differences, and then suggests approaches to building institutions who can implement the rules. Experience shows that it is better to focus on future needs rather than past uses, to give priority to protection of the aquifer, and to use market instruments as tools to achieve rather than to propose results.

pp. 607-619
Assessing Water Footprints Will Not Be Helpful in Improving Water Management or Ensuring Food Security.
Wichelns, D.

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Vol 1 No 2 pp 136–143 © IWA Publishing 2011 doi:10.2166/washdev.2011.101
Assessing and managing fluorosis risk in children and adults in rural Madhya Pradesh, India
Sam Godfrey, Pawan Labhasetwar, Tapas Chakma, Satish Wate, Aditya Swami and Jamie Bartram
This paper presents the application of quantitative chemical risk assessment for assessing and managing fluorosis in 19 schools and 6 villages in Madhya Pradesh, India. A longitudinal study was undertaken with a baseline survey in 2005 and an endline in 2007. Household surveys, water quality and food analysis were undertaken to measure the impact of an Integrated Fluorosis Mitigation programme that included water and nutritional interventions. The baseline survey indicated a maximum fluoride content of 7.8 mg/l in food and 3.7 mg/l in water, equating to a maximum fluoride uptake of 4.8 and 3.7 mg/l in food and water respectively. Mean (actual) daily intake of fluoride for all exposure routes was 0.4 mg/kg of combined adult and child body weight. Intake of fluoride through food was more than 40% of total intake. Calculated guideline values for age groups <18 years and >18 years were 1.7 and 1.9 mg/l respectively. Using WHO methodology, the Guideline Value would be 1.7 mg/l. Fluoride dilution was implemented to reduce the fluoride content to below this level. The endline survey indicated reduction in the prevalence of grade 1 fluorosis of 86%, of grade 2 of 77%, of grade 4 of 60% in all children examined.

Keywords: fluorosis; health-based targets; quantitative chemical risk assessment


IWA Publishing launches a new journal, Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, in 2011.
Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination publishes refereed review articles, theoretical and experimental research papers, new findings and issues of unplanned and planned reuse. The journal welcomes contributions from developing and developed countries.


UEA Water Security and ICID seminar  “Water Security: Progress in theory & practice”
See / or for updates
Friday 4 November 2011.  9.30 pm to 5:15 pm         FRIDAY 4 NOVEMBER 2011 INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, ICE, LONDON

New paper: the water-climate-infrastructure nexus
A group of researchers with Conservation International and WWF have co-authored a paper in PLoS Biology focusing on the water-related threats and opportunities presented by climate change to the development and conservation communities. The authors suggest that the climate change impacts on long-lived water infrastructure for energy production, agriculture, transportation, and supply and sanitation demand a much higher level of coordination between economists, engineers, and ecologists in order to achieve a viable vision of sustainable development and green economies over the coming century. The authors also propose a methodology for integrating effective climate adaptation into long-term water resource management and conservation.
The paper is available for viewing here:
A short video outlining the main points and a brief overview are available here: