Tricia’s snippets 2011-11-10

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT -DORDRECHT-
VOL 25; NUMBER 14; 2011
ISSN 0920-4741
pp. 3699-3713
The Influence of Green Roofs on Runoff Water Quality: A Case Study from Estonia.
Teemusk, A.; Mander, l.
pp. 3769-3784
Investment Evaluation of Rainwater Tanks.
Khastagir, A.; Jayasuriya, N.
pp. 3947-3969
Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: A Strategic Planning Tool for Water Loss Management.
Mutikanga, H. E.; Sharma, S. K.; Vairavamoorthy, K.
pp. 3931-3945
The Potential Link Between El Nino and Water Hyacinth Blooms in Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria, East Africa: Evidence from Satellite Imagery.
Kiage, L. M.; Obuoyo, J.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY VOL 40; NUMBER 5 (2011) pp. 1196-1204
The effect of water and sanitation on child health: evidence from the demographic and health surveys 1986-2007
Fink, G.; Gunther, I.; Hill, K.
Abstract:
Background Despite continued national and international efforts, access to improved water and sanitation remains limited in many developing countries. The health consequences of lacking access to water and sanitation are severe, and particularly important for child development. Methods To investigate the associations between child health and access to water and sanitation, we merged all available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with complete birth histories and water and sanitation information. The merged data set of 171 surveys includes information on 1.1 million children under the age of 5 years in 70 low- and middle-income countries over the period 1986-2007. We used logistic models to estimate the effect of water and sanitation access on infant and child mortality, diarrhoea and stunting. Results Access to improved sanitation was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.86), a lower risk of child diarrhoea (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.90) and a lower risk of mild or severe stunting (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.71-0.75). Access to improved water was associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94) and a lower risk of mild or severe stunting (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.94), but did not show any association with non-infant child mortality (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.04). Conclusions Although our point estimates indicate somewhat smaller protective effects than some of the estimates reported in the existing literature, the results presented in this article strongly underline the large health consequences of lacking access to water and sanitation for children aged <5 years in low- and middle-income countries.

Title: A Potential Sanitary Sewer Overflow Treatment Technology: Fixed-Media Bioreactors
by Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H
Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 714-721. Aug 2011.
Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Bioreactors; Hydraulics; Sand; Sanitation; Sewers; Technology; Wastewater discharges; Weather; overflow
Abstract
Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BOD5/m2?h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment. References: 13 references open in new window Opening the references page in a new window requires javascript to be enabled in your browser. Articles that cite this article?

Title: Impact Of Decentralization Reforms In Pakistan On Service Delivery — An Empirical Study
by Aslam, Ghazia; Yilmaz, Serdar
Public Administration and Development, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 159-171, Aug 2011
Descriptors
Decentralization; Reforms; Service delivery; Pakistan; Magnitude; Governance
 Abstract
By bringing decision making closer to people, decentralization is expected to improve governance and service delivery outcomes. Yet, the empirical evidence on the impact of decentralization on macroeconomic performance and public sector size presents a mixed picture. However, the findings of cross-country studies in the literature are sensitive to the way decentralization is defined, and how its extent and impact are measured. This article avoids the unwanted effects of incomparability and aggregation in cross-country analysis. We use a unique panel data set from 183 villages in Pakistan to analyze the impact of decentralization reforms implemented in 2001 on the provision of services — street paving, construction of water canals, sanitation sewer lines, and school facilities. Our results show that the magnitude of provision of all services increased significantly following decentralization reforms. We further show that the four services are impacted differently and service delivery improvement is not uniform, but not in ways that conform to the hypotheses of patronage theory. [Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.]

Title: The right to water and sanitation in post-conflict peacebuilding
by Tignino, Mara
Water International [Water Int.]. [np].
Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Assembly; Decisions; Economics; Human; Sanitation; Standards; Stands; United Nations
 Abstract
On 26 July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly formally recognized a human right to water and sanitation. The damages that an armed conflict causes to water infrastructure and sanitation services stand as great obstacles to the realization of this right. Taking a rights-based approach in post-conflict settings can benefit the water sector by providing international standards to which political and economic decisions may refer in the creation of water policies and decisions. International criminal tribunals and human rights courts also provide potential avenues to redress violations of the right to water and sanitation during an armed conflict.
Resource Location
[URL:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a9357 60142~frm=titlelink]

Title: Coping with urban flooding: a study of the 2009 Kurnool floods, India
by Ramachandraiah, C |a C Ramachandraiah
Environment and Urbanization [Environ. Urban.]. Vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 431-446. Oct 2011.
 Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Flooding; Sanitation; Urbanization; towns
Article Geographic Terms:; India, Andhra Pradesh
 Abstract
This paper describes the flooding of Kurnool town in Andhra Pradesh, India, in October 2009 and explains how several factors combined to cause one of the worst floods in 100 years. Several areas were submerged in more than 30 feet of water and it took more than three days for the water to recede completely from the town. Drawing on official information and on the responses of affected people, the paper discusses the situation during and after the floods, especially around water and sanitation services, the distribution of relief materials and the post-flood recovery process. Based on this information, the paper proposes several recommendations that are relevant to the policy framework to handle urban floods in similar situations.

Title: A Potential Sanitary Sewer Overflow Treatment Technology: Fixed-Media Bioreactors
by Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H
Water Environment Research [Water Environ. Res.]. Vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 714-721. Aug 2011.
 Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Bioreactors; Hydraulics; Sand; Sanitation; Sewers; Technology; Wastewater discharges; Weather; overflow
Abstract
Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BOD5/m2?h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment. References: 13 references open in new window Opening the references page in a new window requires javascript to be enabled in your browser. Articles that cite this article?

Title: Household Solid Waste Characteristics and Management in Rural Communities
by Taboada-Gonzalez, Paul; Armijo-De-Vega, Carolina; Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Ojeda-Benitez, Sara
Open Waste Management Journal. Vol. 3, pp. 167-173. 2010.
Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Economics; Rural areas; Sanitation; Urban areas; households; solid wastes
Article Geographic Terms:; Mexico; Mexico, Baja California, San Quintin; Mexico, Guerrero
 Abstract
Globally there is a lack of knowledge about waste generation and composition in rural areas because these types of studies have been conducted mainly in big cities. This leaves the local sanitation authorities without information to properly plan its operations. Generally, characterization studies are carried out by using the technique of sampling taking at home level. This method requires human, material and economic resources that sometimes are limited for local sanitation authorities. This paper presents the results of a characterization study obtained by direct analysis of household solid waste generated in two rural communities in northern Mexico. The research also outlines a procedure for estimating the waste generation rate when financial constraints prevent the development of a characterization study at home level. This study attempts to fill the information gap on the generation and composition of solid waste in rural areas. The results indicate a waste generation of 0.631 kg/cap/day in San Quintin and 1.047 kg/cap/day in Vicente Guerrero. The specific weights of the uncompacted SW were respectively 145 kg/m super(3 and 123 kg/m) super(3). The specific weight of the compacted SW was 229 kg/m super(3 in San Quintin. Statistically, the composition of waste between these two rural communities differs in one fraction.)

Title: Global climate change and its impacts on water resources planning and management: assessment and challenges
by Sivakumar, Bellie
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment [Stochastic Environ. Res. Risk Assess.]. Vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 583-600, May 2011.
 Abstract
Population explosion and its many associated effects (e.g. urbanization, water pollution, deforestation) have already caused enormous stress on the world’s fresh water resources and, in turn, environment, health, and economy. According to latest World Health Organization estimates, about 900 million people still lack access to safe drinking water, about 2.5 billion people lack access to proper sanitation, millions of people die every year from water-related disasters and diseases, and economic losses in the order of billions of dollars occur due to water-related disasters. With the global climate change anticipated to have threatening consequences on our water resources and environment both at the global level and at local/regional levels (e.g. increases in the number and magnitude of floods and droughts, increases in sea levels), a general assessment is that the future state of our water resources will be a lot worse than it is now. The facts that over 300 rivers around the world are being shared by two or more nation states and that there are already numerous conflicts in the planning, development, and management of water resources in these basins further complicate matters for future water resources planning. In view of these, any sincere effort towards proper management of our future water resources and resolving potential future water-related conflicts will need to overcome many challenges. These challenges are both biophysical science-related and human science-related. The biophysical science challenges include: identification of the actual causes of climate change, development of global climate models (GCMs) that can adequately incorporate these causes to generate dependable future climate projections at larger scales, formulation of appropriate techniques to downscale the GCM outputs to local conditions for hydrologic predictions, and reliable estimation of the associated uncertainties in all these. The human science challenges have social, political, economic, and environmental facets that often act in an interconnected manner; proper ‘communication’ of (or lack thereof) our climate-water ‘scientific’ research activities to fellow scientists and engineers, policy makers, economists, industrialists, farmers, and the public at large crucially contributes to these challenges. The present study is intended to review the current state of our water resources and the climate change problem and to detail the challenges in dealing with the potential impacts of climate change on our water resources.

Title: Integration of sustainable development in sanitary engineering education in Sweden
by Rydhagen, B; Dackman, C
European Journal of Engineering Education [Eur. J. Eng. Educ.]. Vol 36, no 1, pp. 87-95
Descriptors
Article Subject Terms:; Education; Engineering education; Fuzzy; Fuzzy logic; Fuzzy set theory; Sanitary engineering; Sustainable development; Teaching
 Abstract
In the Swedish Act for higher education, as well as in the policies of technical universities, it is stated that sustainable development (SD) should be integrated into engineering education. Researchers argue that SD needs to be integrated into the overall course content rather than added as a specific course. In this paper, six engineering lecturers have been interviewed to give their views on how SD can be integrated into teaching water and sanitation engineers. Engineering lecturers seem unsure how to interpret SD in relation to their own specific courses. Students are said to request technical knowledge rather than fuzzy ideas of SD and lecturers struggle to open up the teaching to more problem-based perspectives. Sanitary professionals in work practice relate to SD as a core in water treatment processes and regret that responsibility for SD issues fall between traditional departmental structures in society.
Resource Location
[URL:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a9335 39360~frm=titlelink]

Title: Ill health unleashed? Cities and municipal services in Ghana
by Obeng-Odoom, Franklin
Review of African Political Economy, vol. 38, no. 127, pp. 43-60, Mar 2011
 Descriptors
*Cities; *Health Care Services Policy; *Contradictions; *Economic Development; *Efficiency; *Wealth; *Ghana; *Policy Reform; *Africa
Abstract
Increasing urbanisation, wealth and ill health in cities necessitate careful study, especially in African cities whose development is widely regarded as rapid and chaotic. Using Ghanaian cities as a case study, this article analyses some of the important sources of ill health, identifies why they persist, and assesses how they impinge on economic growth, redistribution, and poverty reduction. It argues that, although there is considerable evidence that policy change is urgently needed, the tensions and contradictions between economic and social efficiency, intermeshed with vested political interests, are likely to impede significant changes to the status quo. Adapted from the source document.

From Sanitation Updates:

Haiti: cholera victims demand UN compensation
Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies—an update
Thailand, Bangkok: struggling to clear garbage in flood crisis
Modeling the next generation of on-site sanitation systems
Posted: 09 Nov 2011

Effluent and Waste Water Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 22-23 November 2011
Posted: 08 Nov 2011

Iraq: Saddam’s prison toilet destined for US museum
Viva con Agua Water Days 2011
Developing a Decentralized Performance Monitoring System
Posted: 07 Nov 2011

Child Health Outcomes to Identify Effective Measures of Handwashing
Posted: 03 Nov 2011

Thailand: floating toilets for flood-hit areas
Posted: 02 Nov 2011