WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
VOL 64; NUMB 9 (2011)
Impediments to the adoption of alternative sewerage in South African urban informal settlements
Ashipala, N.; Armitage, N.P.
Increased biogas production in a wastewater treatment plant by anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and sewer sludge – A full scale study
Park, N.D.; Thring, R.W.; Garton, R.P.; Rutherford, M.P.; Helle, S.S.
Retention of heavy metals by stormwater filtration systems: breakthrough analysis
Hatt, B.E.; Steinel, A.; Deletic, A.; Fletcher, T.D.
Design and construction of an experimental pervious paved parking area to harvest reusable rainwater
Gomez-Ullate, E.; Novo, A.V.; Bayon, J.R.; Hernandez, J.R.; Castro-Fresno, D.
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
VOL 29; ISSU 11 (2011)
Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila
Hara, Y.; Furutani, T.; Murakami, A.; Palijon, A.M.; Yokohari, M.
Sustainability of composting as an alternative waste management option for developing countries: a case study of the City of Tshwane
Snyman, J.; Vorster, K.
JOURNAL OF WATER AND HEALTH
VOL 9; NUMB 4 (2011)
Water and sanitation issues for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review and discussion of implications for global health and international development
Groce, N.; Bailey, N.; Lang, R.; Trani, J.F.; Kett, M.
Hand-pumps as reservoirs for microbial contamination of well water
Ferguson, A.S.; Mailloux, B.J.; Ahmed, K.M.; van Geen, A.; McKay, L.D.; Culligan, P.J.
The retention and release of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was investigated in hand-pumps removed from tubewells tapping a faecally contaminated aquifer in Matlab, Bangladesh, and from a new hand-pump deliberately spiked with E. coli. All hand-pumps were connected to reservoirs of sterile water and flushed. Faecal coliforms were observed in the discharge from all three of the previously used hand-pumps, at concentrations comparable to levels measured in discharge when they were attached to the tubewells. During daily flushing of one of the previously used hand-pumps, the concentration of total coliforms in the discharge remained relatively constant (103 MPN/100 mL). Concentrations of E. coli in the pump discharge declined over time, but E. coli was still detectable up to 29 days after the start of flushing. In the deliberately spiked hand-pump, E. coli was observed in the discharge over 125 days (t50 = 8 days) and found to attach preferentially to elastomeric materials within the hand-pump. Attempts to disinfect both the village and new hand-pumps using shock chlorination were shown to be unsuccessful. These results demonstrate that hand-pumps can act as persistent reservoirs for microbial indicator bacteria. This could potentially influence drinking water quality and bias testing of water quality.
Keywords: Bangladesh; chlorination; faecal indicator bacteria; groundwater monitoring; hand-pumps; water supply
Water supply services for Africa’s urban poor: the role of resale
Zuin, V.; Ortolano, L.; Alvarinho, M.; Russel, K.; Thebo, A.; Muximpua, O.; Davis, J.
In sub-Saharan Africa only 35% of the urban population has access to a piped water connection on their premises. The majority of households obtain water from public standpipes or from neighbors who are connected to the municipal network. Water resale is often prohibited, however, because of concerns about affordability and risks to public health. Using data collected from 1,377 households in Maputo, Mozambique, we compare the microbiological quality, as well as the time and money costs of water supply from individual house connections, public standpipes, and water obtained from neighbors. Households with their own water connections have better service across virtually all indicators measured, and express greater satisfaction with their service, as compared with those using other water sources. Households purchasing water from their neighbors pay lower time and money costs per liter of water, on average, as compared with those using standpipes. Resale competes favorably with standpipes along a number of service quality dimensions; however, after controlling for water supply characteristics, households purchasing water from neighbors are significantly less likely to be satisfied with their water service as compared with those using standpipes.
Keywords: Africa; Mozambique; urban water supply; water quality; water resale
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