Tricia’s snippets 2011-12-08

Title: Health Service Delivery: The State Of Government-Non-Government Relations In Bangladesh
by Alam, S.M. Nurul
Public Administration and Development, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 273-281, Oct 2011
Attitudes; Nongovernmental organizations; Bangladesh; Corruption; Water; Health services
There are many examples of collaboration in Bangladesh between government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the provision of services, including health care, education, water and sanitation. This article addresses the question whether such collaboration is temporary within specific projects, or whether it has brought about structural changes in the government-NGO relationship. The focus of the article is on how collaboration has been conceived, evolved and functioned within the Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP). The views of both parties in the partnership are analysed. The data indicate that NGOs tend to see the government as excessively restrictive, bureaucratic in its attitudes, with a tendency to interfere in their activities, and difficult to trust. The government tends to view NGOs as lacking in capacity, sometimes being involved in corruption and less sincere and committed to the work than it is. These differences in perceptions between the two parties undermine the development of relations based on mutual respect, trust and understanding. The article concludes that current relations with government can at best be described as ambivalent. [Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.]

Title: Structures And Strategies In Relationships Between Non-Government Service Providers And Governments
by Batley, Richard
Public Administration and Development, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 306-319, Oct 2011
Nongovernmental organizations; Bangladesh; Exercise; Identity; Health care; Service delivery
This article analyses collaboration between governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan in three services: basic education, healthcare and sanitation. It questions the premise that NGOs that collaborate lose their autonomy and capacity for policy influence. It finds that; even where NGOs operate in constraining institutional environments and enter agreements with government, they are able to exercise strategic choices in response. Most of the studied NGOs depended on government for less than half their funding; they all had alternative sources and so could make strategic choices to some degree. Non-government service providers are not passive in face of structural constraints. Although their strategies are not usually explicit, they balance the need for financial survival, the defence of their organisational identities and commitment to their goals-including influencing government. At least for these NGOs, there is no contradiction between advocacy and service delivery. [Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.]

Title: Complementary Roles? NGO-Government Relations For Community-Based Sanitation In South Asia
by Sansom, Kevin
Public Administration and Development, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 282-293, Oct 2011
Nongovernmental organizations; Local government; Sanitation; South Asia; Community based; Community based programmes
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and local governments differ in their ways of working and are subjected to very different conditioning factors. However, some NGOs engaged in community-based sanitation are increasingly collaborating effectively with the local governments in South Asia. NGOs considered in this article have taken advantage of a more conducive environment to develop some well-designed community-based sanitation programmes in low-income areas, in conjunction with the local government. Some NGOs have also participated in the development of government policies related to sanitation that have enabled the replication of their approaches. In making the transition from distrust between NGOs and local governments to working towards common ends, NGOs have demonstrated their comparative advantages and focused on developing productive relationships with both the local government and the communities in which they work. [Copyright John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.]

Title: Mitigating the Impact of Solid Wastes in Urban Centres in Nigeria
by Momodu, NS; Dimuna, KO; Dimuna, JE
Journal of Human Ecology [J. Hum. Ecol.]. Vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 125-133. May 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Human ecology; Sanitation; Solid wastes; Urban areas; human ecology; mitigation; solid wastes
Article Geographic Terms:; Nigeria
Nigeria’s major urban centres are today grappling with the problems caused by mounting heaps of solid wastes from their environments. This paper undertakes a study of the solid waste build up phenomenon with a view toward finding ameliorative measures that would help reduce their negative effects on urban beautification and sanitation. And hopefully, to provide insights into easing, reducing, minimizing and avoiding the evolving solid, waste encroachment of city streets and roads, particularly in areas of uncontrolled growth and development-typifying cities in Nigeria.

Title: Sedimentation of helminth eggs in water
by Sengupta, Mita E; Thamsborg, Stig M; Andersen, Thorbjorn J; Olsen, Annette; Dalsgaard, Anders
Water Research [Water Res.]. Vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 4651-4660. 1 Oct 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Density; Eggs; Irrigation; Sedimentation; Settling; Tap water; Tubes; Waste water
Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent health risks when used for irrigation of crops. The settling velocities of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum spp.) and wastewater particles were experimentally determined in tap water and in wastewater using Owen tubes. The settling velocities of eggs in tap water was compared with theoretical settling velocities calculated by Stoke’s law using measurements of size and density of eggs as well as density and viscosity of tap water. The mean settling velocity in tap water of 0.0612mms super(-1) found for A. suum eggs was significantly lower than the corresponding values of 0.1487mms super(-1) for T. suis and 0.1262mms super(-1) for Oesophagostomum spp. eggs. For T. suis and Oesophagostomum spp. eggs the theoretical settling velocities were comparable with the observed velocities in the Owen tubes, while it was three times higher for A. suum eggs. In wastewater, the mean settling velocity for A. suum eggs (0.1582mms super(-1)) was found to be different from T. suis (0.0870mms super(-1)), Oesophagostomum spp. (0.1051mms super(-1)), and wastewater particles (0.0474mms super(-1)). This strongly indicates that in low quality water the eggs are incorporated into particle flocs with different settling velocities and that the settling velocity of eggs and particles is closely associated. Our results document that there is a need to differentiate the sedimentation of different types of helminth eggs when assessing the quality of low quality water, e.g. for irrigation usage. The results can also be used to improve existing models for helminth egg removal.

Title: Performance evaluation of biosand filter modified with iron oxide-coated sand for household treatment of drinking water
by Ahammed, MMansoor; Davra, Komal
Desalination [Desalination]. Vol. 276, no. 1-3, pp. 287-293. 2 Aug 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Bacteria; Drinking water; Effluents; Households; Iron; Sand; Turbidity; pH
The biosand filter (BSF), intermittently operated household slow-sand filter, was modified by introducing a 10-cm thick layer of iron oxide-coated sand. Long-duration (about four months) tests were conducted to compare the performance of the modified BSF (MBSF) with the conventional BSF in terms of their efficiency in removing bacteria and turbidity under different operating conditions. Filters were charged daily with 20L or 40L natural canal water (turbidity 10.0+/-1.2 NTU; faecal coliforms 365+/-251 MPN/100mL; pH 8.4+/-0.4) or seeded tap water (turbidity 14.7+/-4.3 NTU; Escherichia coli 3850+/-736CFU/mL; pH 7.9+/-0.3). Results showed that the performance of MBSF in terms of faecal coliform and E. coli removals was better by at least one-log10 unit throughout the filter operation. The mean bacterial removal was low for BSF for the first month (90.0%), while it was 99.3% for MBSF during the same period. Bacteria and turbidity removals increased with time as filter ripening (maturation) occurred in both the filters. No significant difference was observed in turbidity removal between BSF and MBSF, and mean effluent turbidity was around 1 NTU for BSF and MBSF representing >90% removal. When daily charge was increased from 20L to 40L, a reduction in bacterial removal was noted in both the filters indicating the influence of operating conditions. Effluent physico-chemical quality remained within the guideline values for drinking water.

Title: The semicentralized approach to integrated water supply and treatment of solid waste and wastewater-a flexible infrastructure strategy for rapidly growing urban regions: the case of Hanoi/Vietnam
by Bohm, Hans Reiner; Schramm, Sophie; Bieker, Susanne; Zeig, Carola; Anh, Tran Huy; Thanh, Nguyen Chi
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy [Clean Technol. Environ. Policy]. Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 617-623. Aug 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Climate change; Economics; Infrastructure; Policies; Sanitation; Urbanization; Vietnam; Water supplies
The development of the world population is characterized by an absolute population growth and a rapid urbanization. This process, taking place in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, poses major pressure on the affected urban regions. In Asian countries, this development is combined with high economic growth rates. At the same time, the climate change is proceeding, and the energy supply is going to become an existential problem. The rapidly growing cities therefore face the issue that the supply of infrastructures and public services lag behind the rapid urbanization. The increasing energy costs and the imperative to reduce the CO sub(2) emissions aggravate the situation. The centralized systems which started to be implemented in the industrialized countries more than 100 years ago are no longer the appropriate way to solve these problems. The semicentralized integrated approach, recently developed for rapidly growing urban regions in China, in contrast, offers with its flexibility a sustainable solution to cope with these developments. This article presents objectives and first results of an interdisciplinary R&D project aiming at the adaptation of the semicentralized integrated approach to the case of Hanoi, the rapidly growing capital of Vietnam, to contribute to the solution of the sanitation problems of both the old City Center and the urban expansions in conjunction. This article focuses on the planning and institutional aspects. The technical questions will be presented later in separate articles. The ongoing project is conducted by the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in cooperation with the National University of Civil Engineering Hanoi and an industrial partner.

Title: World Bank Structural Adjustment, Water, and Sanitation: A Cross-National Analysis of Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Shandra, Carrie L; Shandra, John M; London, Bruce
Organization & Environment [Organ. Environ.]. Vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 107-129. Jun 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Banks; Loans; Mathematical models; Mortality; Nations; Regression; Sanitation; Sanitation facilities
The authors conduct a cross-national analysis that seeks to accomplish two important goals. First, they test dependency theory’s hypotheses that World Bank structural adjustment adversely affects child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, they empirically evaluate the effect of access to clean water and basic sanitation on child mortality. In doing so, they use two-way fixed effects regression models to analyze child mortality using data on 31 nations and four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). They find substantial support for their first goal relating to dependency theory that when a Sub-Saharan African nation is under a World Bank structural adjustment loan, then it tends to have higher levels of child mortality. They also find support for their second goal concerning the importance of including environmental variables in cross-national research on health. Specifically, they find that higher levels of access to an improved water source and an improved sanitation facility are associated with lower levels of child mortality within Sub-Saharan African nations. The authors conclude by discussing the findings, theoretical implications, methodological implications, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.

Title: Photocatalytic Enhancement for Solar Disinfection of Water: A Review
by Byrne, JAnthony; Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar A; Dunlop*, Patrick SM; Alrousan*, Dheaya MA; Hamilton*, Jeremy WJ
International Journal of Photoenergy. Vol. 2011, [np]. Jan 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Diseases; Drinking water; Microorganisms; Photocatalysis; Sanitation; Semiconductors; Sunlight; Water supplies
It is estimated that 884 million people lack access to improved water supplies. Many more are forced to rely on supplies that are microbiologically unsafe, resulting in a higher risk of waterborne diseases, including typhoid, hepatitis, polio, and cholera. Due to poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water, there are around 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year resulting in 2.2 million deaths, most of these are children under five. While conventional interventions to improve water supplies are effective, there is increasing interest in household-based interventions to produce safe drinking water at an affordable cost for developing regions. Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a simple and low cost technique used to disinfect drinking water, where water is placed in transparent containers and exposed to sunlight for 6 hours. There are a number of parameters which affect the efficacy of SODIS, including the solar irradiance, the quality of the water, and the nature of the contamination. One approach to SODIS enhancement is the use of semiconductor photocatalysis to produce highly reactive species that can destroy organic pollutants and inactivate water pathogens. This paper presents a critical review concerning semiconductor photocatalysis as a potential enhancement technology for solar disinfection of water.

Title: Lessons Learned during Public Health Response to Cholera Epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
by Tappero, Jordan W; Tauxe, Robert V
Emerging infectious diseases, November 2011, 17(11):2087-2093
After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths, poor nutrition, and frequent infectious diseases such as HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria. Many nations, multinational agencies, and nongovernmental organizations rapidly mobilized to assist Haiti. The US government provided emergency response through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the US Agency for International Development and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This report summarizes the participation by the Centers and its partners. The efforts needed to reduce the spread of the epidemic and prevent deaths highlight the need for safe drinking water and basic medical care in such difficult circumstances and the need for rebuilding water, sanitation, and public health systems to prevent future epidemics.

Title: Five pond-centred outbreaks of cholera in villages of West Bengal, India: evidence for focused interventions.
by Mukherjee, Rita; Halder, Debasish; Saha, Subhasish; Shyamali, Rudra; Subhranshu, Chakrabarti; Ramakrishnan, R; Murhekar, Manoj V; Hutin, Yvan J
Journal of health, population, and nutrition, October 2011, 29(5):421-428
In rural West Bengal, outbreaks of cholera are often centred around ponds that is a feature of the environment. Five investigations of laboratory-confirmed, pond-centred outbreaks of cholera were reviewed. Case-control odds ratios were approximated with relative risks (RRs) as the incidence was low. The environment was investigated to understand how the pond(s) could have become contaminated and could have infected villagers. The five outbreaks of cholera in 2004-2008 led to 277 cases and three deaths (median attack rate: 51/1,000 people; case fatality: 1.1%; median age of case-patients: 22 years; median duration: 13 days, range: 6-15 days). Factors significantly (p<0.05) associated with cholera in the case-control (n=4) and cohort investigations (n=1) included washing utensils in ponds (4 outbreaks of cholera, RR range: 6-12), bathing (3 outbreaks of cholera, RR range: 3.5-9.3), and exposure to pond water, including drinking (2 outbreaks of cholera, RR range: 2.1-3.2), mouth washing (1 outbreak of cholera, RR: 4.8), and cooking (1 outbreak of cholera, RR: 3.0). Initial case-patients contaminated ponds through washing soiled clothes (n=4) or defaecation (n=1). Ubiquitous ponds used for many purposes transmit cholera in West Bengal. Focused health education, hygiene, and sanitation must protect villagers, particularly following the occurrence of an index case in a village that has ponds.

Title: The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe: experience of the icddr,b team in the field.
by Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Iqbal, Anwarul; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Khan, Azharul Islam; Islam, M Sirajul; Siddique, Abul Kasem; Cravioto, Alejandro
Journal of health, population, and nutrition, October 2011, 29(5):541-546
During August 2008-June 2009, an estimated 95,531 suspected cases of cholera and 4,282 deaths due to cholera were reported during the 2008 cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe. Despite the efforts by local and international organizations supported by the Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Welfare in the establishment of cholera treatment centres throughout the country, the case-fatality rate (CFR) was much higher than expected. Over two-thirds of the deaths occurred in areas without access to treatment facilities, with the highest CFRs (>5%) reported from Masvingo, Manicaland, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Midland, and Matabeleland North provinces. Some factors attributing to this high CFR included inappropriate cholera case management with inadequate use of oral rehydration therapy, inappropriate use of antibiotics, and a shortage of experienced healthcare professionals. The breakdown of both potable water and sanitation systems and the widespread contamination of available drinking-water sources were also considered responsible for the rapid and widespread distribution of the epidemic throughout the country. Training of healthcare professionals on appropriate cholera case management and implementation of recommended strategies to reduce the environmental contamination of drinking-water sources could have contributed to the progressive reduction in number of cases and deaths as observed at the end of February 2009.


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