Tricia’s snippets 2011-12-21

Cost recovery in waterborne sanitation: cases in Botswana
Bolaane, B.; Ikgopoleng, H.

• ANNUAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION – AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION : American Water Works Association VOL 4; (2011) pp.2788-2799
Capacity Buiding. The Case of Water and Sanitation Utilities in Mexico
Olivares, R.

VOL 64; NUMB 10 (2011)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.1973-1979
Study of impacts of floods on the water quality in an arid zone: the case of Tarim River in Northwest China
de la Paix, M.J.; Lanhai, L.; Xi, C.; Varenyam, A.; Anming, B.
• pp.1987-1992
Resource recovery from source separated domestic waste(water) streams; full scale results
Zeeman, G.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.
• pp.2038-2043
Removal of contaminants and pathogens from secondary effluents using intermittent sand filters
Bali, M.; Gueddari, M.; Boukchina, R.
• pp.2089-2095
Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment
Faulwetter, J.L.; Burr, M.D.; Cunningham, A.B.; Stewart, F.M.; Camper, A.K.; Stein, O.R.

Title: Empowering rural communities: simple Water Safety Plans
by Hasan, T J; Hicking, A; David, J
Water Science & Technology: Water Supply [Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply]. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 309-317. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
Every year 2800 deaths in Pacific island countries result from diarrhoea, and most are children under five years of age. These tragic diarrheal deaths are preventable as they are often linked to unsafe water, lack of proper sanitation facilities and poor hygienic practices. Effective preventive management through the framework of a drinking Water Safety Plan (WSP) is an efficient mechanism for ensuring the safe quality of drinking water thereby reducing the burden of water related diseases. The large proportion (81%) of people in Pacific island countries living in rural or outer island communities mostly have their own water supply (for example rainwater tanks or hand-dug wells), and often the water is consumed untreated. The remoteness and isolation of these rural communities prevent national surveillance authorities to regularly visit and provide advice on drinking water safety issues. In such circumstances empowering rural communities to ensure the safety of their drinking water, through trained local facilitators, could be promoted and utilised effectively. However, WSPs for rural communities have to be relatively simple hence tools such as modified sanitary inspections and the presence/absence hydrogen sulfide test could be used. The approach of empowering communities through trained local facilitators to promote the WSP framework has been implemented in the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI). Positive feedback has been received by trained facilitators in RMI on the use of modified sanitary inspections (translated into Marshallese) and the hydrogen sulfide test. It is believed that the approach of empowering communities on WSPs through training local facilitators and equipping them with the above mentioned simple tools is effective and has potential for further replication in rural Pacific communities to improve drinking water quality and reduce the burden of water related diseases.

Title: Water Safety Plan demonstration projects in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons from the field
by Rinehold, Angella; Corrales, Lana; Medlin, Elizabeth; Gelting, Richard J
Water Science & Technology: Water Supply [Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply]. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 297-308.
A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive, risk management approach to ensure drinking water safety. This emerging methodology is being increasingly applied in both industrialized and lower income countries worldwide. In 2006, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other local, national, and international partners in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) initiated a series of WSP demonstration projects. The objectives were to raise WSP awareness, build capacity, and promote adoption of the WSP approach while identifying those factors that aid or hinder water safety planning efforts in resource-challenged settings. This paper presents eleven lessons learned from these WSP demonstration projects, including the importance of assembling a well-supported interagency team, long-term commitment to WSP implementation, adherence to a water quality monitoring plan, and determining how WSP impacts will be evaluated prior to WSP initiation. To assist in supporting future WSP activity in the region, this paper shares experiences that led to these successes, challenges, and lessons learned.

Title: Water safety plans, water quality surveillance and investment planning in Kyrgyzstan
by Sutherland, David; Wood, Tom; Vashneva, Nina; Zhunusbaeva, Venera
waterlines [Waterlines]. Vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 248-256. Jul 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Economics; Sanitation; Water management; Water quality; Water supplies; water quality
Article Geographic Terms:; Kyrgyzstan
Water safety plans have been used in Kyrgyzstan to achieve safer water quality through their role in improving community management of water supply systems, delivering more effective government water quality surveillance and informing a water supply and sanitation investment planning process. This paper reflects on two different projects that were implemented in Kyrgyzstan and considers how the two could be combined to use water safety plans in an important new way – safe water investment planning. It is based upon Atkins’ work for DFID, from 2002-2006, and for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2008 and 2009. Articles that cite this article?

Title: HIV/AIDS, care-giving and the politics of water and sanitation: A case study
by de la Porte, Susan
Agenda (Durban). Vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 103-112. Jun 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
The history of access to water in South Africa has been marked by profound inequalities based on the structural forces of gender, race and class. This Article presents a case study of one particular resource-poor peri-urban community north of Durban in which the majority of households are female-centered around either a core of kin or non-kin women who are afflicted by the double-edged sword of HIV/AIDS and poverty. The Article, based on empirical research, spans a four-year period in which intensive ethnographic research was conducted in the community and draws upon participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and life histories as key methodologies. The research utilises the structural violence paradigm to articulate the multi-faceted gender dynamics surrounding the relationship between women and water. The Article exemplifies how females charged with water maintenance on the household level are additionally tasked with the role of home-based care-giving to kin and non-kin alike who are suffering from HIV/AIDS. The gendered nature of home-based care requires women to assume responsibility for water beyond the household level in an attempt to maintain the health and sanitation of the community. Despite structural and local adversities, the Article illustrates that women actively assert agency, assume the challenge and view their relationship with water as an empowering force as it permits them to persistently strive to achieve health and sanitation in their impoverished community.

Title: Adaptation of Norway’s water supply and sanitation systems to cope with climate change
by Saegrov, Sveinung; Ugarelli, Rita
Water Asset Management International [Water Asset Manage. Int.]. Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 10-12. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
Climate change can have impacts in all areas of the water industry, including quality and availability of water sources and water and wastewater infrastructure robustness. Today’s choices, particularly regarding investments in infrastructure, will significantly influence the ability of the water industry to react to the climate change impacts of tomorrow. In addition to the need to plan investments, new issues related to water supply, health safety and environmental protection will also have to be accounted for. In this article, Sveinung Saegrov and Rita Ugarelli highlight the need for evaluating the relationship between expected climate changes in Norway and their impacts on urban water components.

Title: Going with the franchising flow: improving watsan services in South Africa
by Wall, Kevin; Bhagwan, Jay
Water Utility Management International. Vol. 6, no. 3, [np]. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
In an effort to improve the cleaning and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure in South Africa, an innovative franchising approach is being piloted at 400 schools, improving not only sanitation facilities, but also health and safety, as well proving employment opportunities. Kevin Wall and Jay Bhagwan discuss the franchising approach used and the success of its deployment. Executive summary The rapid rate of construction and commissioning of new water infrastructure in South Africa has severely challenged the ability of public sector institutions to keep these well maintained, resulting in large differences in the quality of water and sanitation services in the country. Looking for a solution to this, the Water Research Commission (WRC) commissioned a scoping study in 2005 to explore the application of franchising principles, to ensure a constant high quality of services. This study found that franchising could address the lack of higher-level expertise often been identified as a key to improvement of service, as well as support the development of local micro-enterprises. Based on this study, a pilot project was begun in 2009 at 400 schools in the Butterworth Education District, undertaken by a partnership between The Department of Education (DoE) of the Eastern Cape provincial government, Irish Aid, CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), WRC, and utility Amanz’ abantu Services (Pty) Ltd. Local people were invited to become franchisees, who were then trained and given basic equipment to clean and maintain the sanitation facilities of the schools. Before and after photographs are taken for the school principals to sign off the work, and reports on the condition of the facilities are sent to DoE to develop the relationship between the schools, franchisees, and government. Due to the success of the first round of maintenance, the franchisees have also undertaken maintenance of rainwater harvesting systems in the schools, and the DoE has suggested increasing the pilot area to 1000 schools. Eventually the franchisees will move from a subcontract agreement to a franchise agreement, working directly for DoE.

VOL 36; NUMB 7 (2011)
ISSN 0250-8060

VOL 26; NUMB 1 (2012)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.89-107
Application of Water Poverty Index (WPI) in Nepalese Context: A Case Study of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB)
Manandhar, S.; Pandey, V. P.; Kazama, F.


From Sanitation Updates:

WASHplus Weekly – Financing for WASH
Africa wide WASH technology review published
(see below also)
Posted: 16 Dec 2011

Caganers: Sarah Palin and FC Barcelona defecating figurines in 2011 Christmas collection
Water shortages impede hygiene for Nepalese women
Posted: 15 Dec 2011

Parker, A. et al., 2011. Africa wide water, sanitation and hygiene technology review. (WASHTech Deliverable 2.1). The Hague: WASHTech c/o IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and Cranfield: Cranfield University. 93 p. : 1 box, 9 fig., 1 tab. Includes references.
Available at:

WASHTech has published a literature review focusing on 14 technologies used in Africa in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector.

For each technology there is a description of the range of literature available on it, a concise description of the technology itself, a description of its application, a selection of interesting case studies, and an explanation as to whether the technology meets technical, financial, social and institutional success criteria.

Only two technologies met all four success criteria: hand dug wells and the India Mark II pump, and the latter only with the caveat that there was a functional maintenance system.

The least successful technology was the Playpump, which was only institutionally successful, and even that was only after significant pressure was put on governments by non-conventional donors. Jerry cans and the gulper only met one success criteria (technical success); they may meet other success criteria but further research is required. Most technologies were technically successful – the only failures were bio-additives and Playpumps. The other success criteria were met by roughly half of the technologies.

Core issues that WASHTech plans to take up further include the appeal of inappropriate technologies like Playpumps and Lifestraws to naive donors, and ways to get government approval for low-cost, locally managed technologies.