Tricia’s snippets 2012-01-12


WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)
Drinking Water Equity, Safety and Sustainability: Thematic report on drinking water 2011

Title: Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings-a case study from India
by Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Mahore, Piyush; Ganguly, A K
Environmental monitoring and assessment, January 2012, 184(1):251-263
On-site sanitation has emerged as a preferred mode of sanitation in cities experiencing rapid urbanization due to the high cost involved in off-site sanitation which requires conventional sewerages. However, this practice has put severe stress on groundwater especially its quality. Under the above backdrop, a study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on quality of groundwater sources in two mega cities namely Indore and Kolkata which are situated in two different geological settings. The parameters for the studies are distance of groundwater source from place of sanitation, effect of summer and monsoon seasons, local hydro-geological conditions, and physico-chemical parameters. NO(3) and fecal coliform concentrations are considered as main indexes of pollution in water. Out of many conclusions which can be made from this studies, one major conclusion is about the influence of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality is minimal in Kolkata, whereas it is significant in Indore. This difference is due to the difference in hydrogeological parameters of these two cities, Kolkata being on alluvium quaternary and Indore being on Deccan trap of Cretaceous to Paleogene age.

Title: Geographical analysis of the role of water supply and sanitation in the risk of helminth infections of children in West Africa.
by Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Barnett, Adrian G; Clements, Archie C A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, December 13, 2011, 108(50):20084-20089
Globally, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are major contributors to mortality and burden of disease. We aimed to quantify the role of WASH in the risk of Schistosoma hematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infection in school-aged children; to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of helminth infection due to WASH; and to spatially predict the risk of infection. We generated predictive maps of areas in West Africa without piped water, toilet facilities, and improved household floor types, using spatial risk models. Our maps identified areas in West Africa where the millennium development goal for water and sanitation is lagging behind. There was a generally better geographical coverage for toilets and improved household floor types compared with water supply. These predictions, and their uncertainty, were then used as covariates in Bayesian geostatistical models for the three helminth species. We estimated a smaller attributable fraction for water supply in S. mansoni (PAF 47%) compared with S. hematobium (PAF 71%). The attributable fraction of S. hematobium infection due to natural floor type (PAF 21%) was comparable to that of S. mansoni (PAF 16%), but was significantly higher for hookworm infection (PAF 86%). Five percent of hookworm cases could have been prevented if improved toilet facilities had been available. Mapping the distribution of infection risk adjusted for WASH allowed the identification of communities in West Africa where preventive chemotherapy integrated with interventions to improve WASH will yield the greatest health benefits.

Title: Water access and attendance for diarrhea in primary health care centers, Gaza strip.
by Abouteir, A; El Yaagoubi, F; Bioh-Johnson, I; Kamel, A; Godard, N; Cormerais, L; Robin, F; Lesens, O
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, October 2011, 105(10):555-560
Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; Diarrhea: epidemiology; *Diarrhea: microbiology; Diarrhea: parasitology; *Feces: microbiology; Feces: parasitology; Female; Housing: standards; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Middle East: epidemiology; *Primary Health Care; Prospective Studies; Refugees; Risk Factors; Sanitation: standards; War; Water Supply: standards; Young Adult
Water access and sanitation has worsened in Gaza strip since the conflict between Israel and Palestine in January 2009. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between attendance for diarrhea to a Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Gaza strip and several potential risk factors including water access. A matched case control study with prospective data record was performed. Cases were patients attending a PHCC for diarrhea, and controls were patients attending for any other cause with no diarrhea within the previous three months or since birth. We matched 133 cases and 133 controls, for date of inclusion, age, gender. All patients attended PHCC and were included in January/February 2010. A stool analysis for bacteria and parasites was performed for cases. Of the 266 patients, 62% (166) have to buy water from a private provider. In multivariate analysis, four variables were independently predictive of diarrhea: public water access (OR: 0.046; 95% CI: 0.005-0.454; P=0.0083), poultry or rabbits at home, and presence of cooker at home. A bacterial cause was found in 5.5% (7) and Giardia duodenalis in 20% (26). Treatments did not comply with WHO recommendations. Efforts should be made to improve water access and to implement guidelines for a better management of diarrhea in Gaza strip.Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

VOL 11; NUMB 5 (2011)
ISSN 1606-9749

• pp.516-526
Perceived performance of decentralised water systems: a survey approach
Moglia, M.; Sharma, A.; Alexander, K.; Mankad, A.

• pp.527-533
Using smart meters to identify social and technological impacts on residential water consumption
Beal, C.; Stewart, R.A.; Spinks, A.; Fielding, K.

• pp.545-559
Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purpose in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh
Uddin, S.M.H.; Mostafa, M.G.; Haque, A.B.M.H.

• pp.568-577
Web enablement of a Water Safety Plan via the municipal-based electronic Water Quality Management System (eWQMS)
de Souza, P.F.; Burgess, J.E.; Swart, M.; Naidoo, V.; Blanckenberg, A.

• pp.578-585
Water treatment and supply: intermediate education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Byars, P.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.

Title: Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies
by Suthar, Surindra
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment [Environ. Monit. Assess.]. Vol. 173, no. 1-4, pp. 837-849. Feb 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Bacteria; Contamination; Drinking water; Fluorides; Groundwater; Health; Rural; Standards
Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO 3 – ) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

Title: Modelling cholera epidemics: the role of waterways, human mobility and sanitation.
by Mari, L; Bertuzzo, E; Righetto, L; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; Rinaldo, A
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society, February 7, 2012, 9(67):376-388
We investigate the role of human mobility as a driver for long-range spreading of cholera infections, which primarily propagate through hydrologically controlled ecological corridors. Our aim is to build a spatially explicit model of a disease epidemic, which is relevant to both social and scientific issues. We present a two-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of the pathogen Vibrio cholerae owing to host movement, described here by means of a gravity-model approach. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the extensive cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during 2000-2001. We show that long-range human movement is fundamental in quantifying otherwise unexplained inter-catchment transport of V. cholerae, thus playing a key role in the formation of regional patterns of cholera epidemics. We also show quantitatively how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect large-scale cholera transmission, and analyse the effects of different sanitation policies.

Title: Global perspectives for prevention of infectious diseases associated with mass gatherings.
by Abubakar, Ibrahim; Gautret, Philippe; Brunette, Gary W; Blumberg, Lucille; Johnson, David; Poumerol, Gilles; Memish, Ziad A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Khan, Ali S
The Lancet infectious diseases, January 2012, 12(1):66-74
We assess risks of communicable diseases that are associated with mass gatherings (MGs), outline approaches to risk assessment and mitigation, and draw attention to some key challenges encountered by organisers and participants. Crowding and lack of sanitation at MGs can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases, and rapid population movement can spread them across the world. Many infections pose huge challenges to planners of MGs; however, these events also provide an opportunity to engage in public health action that will benefit host communities and the countries from which participants originate.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Title: Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.
by Mwangangi, Joseph M; Midega, Janet; Kahindi, Samuel; Njoroge, Laban; Nzovu, Joseph; Githure, John; Mbogo, Charles M; Beier, John C
Parasitology research, January 2012, 110(1):61-71
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and diversity in urban, peri-urban, and rural strata in Malindi along the Kenya coast. The study was conducted in the coastal district of Malindi between January and December 2005. Three strata were selected which were described as urban, peri-urban, and rural. Sampling was done during the wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season was done in the months of April and June to cover the long rainy season and in November and December to cover the short rainy season, while the dry season was between January and March and September and October. Adult mosquito collection was done using Pyrethrum Spray Collection (PSC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps inside houses and specimens were identified morphologically. In the three strata (urban, peri-urban, and rural), 78.5% of the total mosquito (n?=?7,775) were collected using PSC while 18.1% (n?=?1,795) were collected using the CDC light traps. Using oviposition traps, mosquito eggs were collected and reared in the insectary which yielded 329 adults of which 83.8% (n?=?276) were Aedes aegypti and 16.2% (n?=?53) were Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito distribution in the three sites varied significantly in each collection site. Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles coustani were predominant in the rural stratum while C. quinquefasciatus was mostly found in urban and peri-urban strata. However, using PSC and CDC light trap collection techniques, A. aegypti was only found in urban strata. In the three strata, mosquitoes were mainly found in high numbers during the wet season. Further, A. gambiae, C. quinquefasciatus, and A. aegypti mosquitoes were found occurring together inside the houses. This in turn exposes the inhabitants to an array of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria, bancroftian filariasis, and arboviruses (dengue fever, Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya fever, and West Nile Virus). In conclusion, our findings provide useful information for the design of integrated mosquito and disease control programs in East African environments.

VOL 42; NUMB 1 (2010)
ISSN 0970-275X

• pp.26-32
Water Efficient Buildings: for the Sustainable Development of Water Resources in Urban Area
Agarwal, A.K.; Kulkarni, P.B.

• pp.67-73
Regulation at Local Level for Implementation of Water Supply Projects Through Public Private Partnership
Landge, H.C.; Gupta, R.; Katpatal, Y.B.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT : Special Issue: Thematic issue: Information for Improving Water Resources Decision Making
VOL 27; NUMB 4 (2011)
ISSN 0790-0627

• pp.625-632
Improving the Information Base to Better Guide Water Resource Management Decision Making
Parris, K.
This paper presents the main messages as well as the key recommendations presented during the OECD workshop on information base and water resource management decision making, in Zaragoza, Spain, May 2010. Findings include fundamental issues to which further attention should be paid. There is an information imbalance in many countries, with implementation of water policy initiatives often supported by little data or information. There is also the limitation of many countries to collect water information due to lack of resources and loss of expertise to collect, analyze and interpret water data.

• pp.633-645
Do the Virtual Water and Water Footprint Perspectives Enhance Policy Discussions?
Wichelns, D.
The notions of virtual water and water footprints are gaining popularity among researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Many of the published articles include statements suggesting that public policies regarding water allocation, agriculture, or international trade should reflect consideration of virtual water and water footprints. Yet those notions lack a scientifically tested conceptual framework and they are too narrowly defined to inform policy decisions in a meaningful way. Consumers, firms, and public officials wishing to improve water resource management need and deserve much better information than is contained in estimates of virtual water and water footprints. A more thoughtful, comprehensive approach is needed to develop policies that will truly improve the management of water and other natural resources, while also enhancing livelihoods.

• pp.723-736
Conflicting Objectives of Trinidad’s Water Pricing Policy: A Need for Good Water Pricing and Governance
Mycoo, M.
Water pricing policy is determined by multiple, though conflicting objectives. This paper analyzes flat water charges for households based on property values, using Trinidad as a case study. A major finding is that this tariff is economically inefficient and encourages water wastage which becomes environmentally unsustainable. Also, while social equity is a main objective in using this method of water pricing, in reality this is compromised. A key contribution of this paper is that water supply is regular in many countries where flat rates are used, but Trinidad consumers suffer from water shortages. The politics of water pricing and poor governance explain this anomaly in service, economic inefficiency, social inequity, and environmentally unsustainable water management.

• pp.759-768
Energy Demand Considerations for the Supply of Domestic Water in Jamaica
Haiduk, A.; Ishemo, A.
Jamaica’s water supply sector is recognized as the largest electricity consumer in the island’s public sector. This paper evaluates whether replacing high-cost groundwater abstraction with surface water treatment and distribution is a viable option to minimize electricity consumption in the water sector. The findings suggest that a change from groundwater abstraction to surface water treatment and distribution by conveying surface water around the island incurs higher electricity costs compared to the present supply model (reliance on ground water). However, as part of a strategy for a more efficient water sector it is recommended that the above approach be further evaluated with more economic considerations, engineering designs and possible storage facilities to reduce the time of pumping of ground water.


From Sanitation Updates:

Research-Based Campaign Messaging is Critical for Sustaining Handwashing Behavior Change
Mozambique – Effectiveness of Large Scale Water and Sanitation Interventions
Posted: 10 Jan 2012

Which are the 15 top international non-profits working in the WASH sector?
Posted: 07 Jan 2012 04:22 AM PST

WASHplus Weekly – Focus on WASH and IAP Technologies
Posted: 06 Jan 2012 12:10 PM PST

Assessing the impact of a school-based water treatment, hygiene and sanitation programme on pupil absence
Posted: 05 Jan 2012 06:43 AM PST

Jay Graham – Bangladesh environmental health photos
Posted: 04 Jan 2012 06:55 AM PST

2011 in review
Posted: 31 Dec 2011 04:17 PM PST

Bangladesh: WaterAid gets Swiss and Swedish grants for WASH projects
Posted: 22 Dec 2011 05:02 AM PST

Dec. 2011 – Community-led Total Sanitation Newsletter
Posted: 21 Dec 2011 09:43 AM PST