Tricia’s snippets 2012-01-19

 A selection from e-mail alerts:

Title: Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area
by Sauve, Sebastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prevost, Michele
Chemosphere [Chemosphere]. Vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 118-123. Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Chemical pollution; Fecal coliforms; Islands; Sanitation; Sewers; Storms; Streams; Water sampling; caffeine
Article Geographic Terms:; Canada, Quebec, Montreal
Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montreal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R2 value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400ng caffeine L-1 allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100mL (cfu 100mL-1) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset.

Title: The sustainability and impact of school sanitation, water and hygiene education in southern India
by Mathew, Kochurani; Zachariah, Suma; Shordt, Kathleen; Snel, Marielle; Cairncross, Sandy; Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter
waterlines [Waterlines]. Vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 275-292. Oct 2009.
For at least 50 years ‘hygiene education’ or more currently ‘hygiene promotion’ campaigns in schools, along with ‘school sanitation’ have been an unquestioned ‘essential element’ of water and sanitation promotion. This study describes a set of findings and conclusions that call into question the ‘obvious logic’ of school hygiene and sanitation promotion as currently practised. The overwhelming majority of ‘trained’ pupils do not in fact wash their hands with soap after using the toilet and before eating (even though the importance of such practices is well established and has almost certainly been emphasized in hygiene classes) and open defecation still appears to be relatively widespread even in intervention schools. This research therefore presents important findings for water, sanitation and hygiene in general and in the schools sector. References: 1 reference open in new window Opening the references page in a new window requires javascript to be enabled in your browser. Articles that cite this article?

Title: Using temperature and time criteria to control the effectiveness of continuous thermal sanitation of piggery effluent in terms of set microbial indicators
by Cunault, C; Pourcher, AM; Burton, CH
Journal of Applied Microbiology [J. Appl. Microbiol.]. Vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1492-1504.
Aim: To determine the minimal conditions (temperature-time), necessary to achieve set sanitation targets for selected microbial indicators during the continuous thermal treatment of pig slurry. Methods and Results: The effectiveness of thermal treatment between 55 and 96 degree C was studied using Escherichia coli, enterococci, sulfite-reducing Clostridia (SRC), mesophilic culturable bacteria (MCB), F+-specific and somatic phages. Identification of SRC and MCB was performed using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Ten minutes at 70 degree C or 1h at 60 degree C was sufficient to reduce the vegetative bacteria by 4-5 log10, but it had little effect on somatic phages nor on spore formers, dominated by Clostridium sp. At 96 degree C, somatic phages were still detected, but there was a reduction of 3.1 log10 for SRC and of 1.4 log10 for MCB. At 96 degree C, Clostridium botulinum was identified among the thermotolerant MCB. Conclusion: Only those hygienic risks relating to mesophilic vegetative bacteria can be totally eliminated from pig slurry treated at 60 degree C (60min) or 70 degree C (<10min). Significance and Impact of the Study: Hygiene standards based on the removal of the indicators E. coli and enterococci can easily be met by treatment as low as 60 degree C (enabling, a low-cost treatment using heat recovery). However, even at 96 degree C, certain pathogens may persist.

Title: Risk Management in a Developing Country Context: Improving Decisions About Point-of-Use Water Treatment Among the Rural Poor in Africa.
by Arvai, Joseph; Post, Kristianna
Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, January 2012, 32(1):67-80
More than 1 billion people, the vast majority of which live in the developing world, lack basic access to clean water for domestic use. For this reason, finding and promoting effective and sustainable solutions for the provision of reliable clean water in developing nations has become a focus of several public health and international development efforts. Even though several means of providing centrally located sources of clean water in developing communities exist, the severity and widespread nature of the water problem has led most development agencies and sanitation experts to strongly advocate the use of point-of-use treatment systems alongside whatever source of water people regularly use. In doing so, however, development practitioners have been careful to point out that any interventions or infrastructure regarding water safety and human health must also adhere to one of the central principles of international development: to facilitate more democratic and participatory models of decision making and governance. To this end, the research reported here focused on the development of a deliberative risk management framework for involving affected stakeholders in decisions about POU water treatment systems. This research, which was grounded in previous studies of structured decision making, took place in two rural villages in the East African nation of Tanzania.© 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

VOL 26; NUMB 2 (2012)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.295-305
Rainwater Harvesting: An Alternative to Safe Water Supply in Nigerian Rural Communities
Ishaku, H. T.; Majid, M. R.; Johar, F.
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an economical small-scale technology that has the potential to augment safe water supply with least disturbance to the environment, especially in the drier regions. In Nigeria, less than half of the population has reasonable access to reliable water supply. This study in northeastern Nigeria determined the rate of water consumption and current water sources before estimating the amount of rainwater that can potentially be harvested. A survey on 200 households in four villages namely, Gayama, Akate, Sidi and Sabongari established that more than half of them rely on sources that are susceptible to drought, i.e. shallow hand-dug wells and natural water bodies, while only 3% harvest rainwater. Taraba and Gombe states where the villages are located have a mean annual rainfall of 1,064 mm and 915 mm respectively. Annual RWH potential per household was estimated to be 63.35 m3 for Taraba state and 54.47 m3 for Gombe state. The amount could meet the water demand for the village of Gayama although the other three villages would have to supplement their rainwater with other sources. There is therefore sufficient rainwater to supplement the need of the rural communities if the existing mechanism and low involvement of the villagers in RWH activities could be improved.

• pp.359-375
Integrated Management of Non-conventional Water Resources in Anhydrous Islands
Liu, S.; Papageorgiou, L. G.; Gikas, P.
Anhydrous islands are dependent either on non-conventional water resources, such as desalinated seawater or reclaimed water from wastewater, or on water importation from the mainland. The latter option is often expensive and non-sustainable. Desalinated water can be used for potable and non-potable water applications, while reclaimed water can be used for non-potable water applications. Thus all water needs can be satisfied by an optimal blend of desalinated and reclaimed water. It is important to calculate the optimal capacities and locations of seawater desalination plants, wastewater treatment plants and water reclamation plants, and to estimate the water/wastewater conveyance system, in order to minimise water production and distribution costs. Mathematical modelling and optimisation techniques can be employed for calculating the optimum scenario: the satisfaction of all water needs at minimum cost. In this article, we have estimated the water demands taking into account water quality for the anhydrous Greek island of Syros, in the Aegean Sea. Syros has been subdivided into 6 regions, taking into account geographical and population distribution criteria. All water needs are to be satisfied by desalinated seawater and reclaimed water. A mixed-integer linear programming algorithm is used here to calculate the optimal scenario (location and capacities of desalination plants and wastewater treatment and water reclamation plants, as well as the desalinated water, reclaimed water and wastewater conveyance infrastructure needed) by minimising the annualised total cost including capital and operating costs.

• pp.531-552
Water Resources Flows Related to Urbanization in China: Challenges and Perspectives for Water Management and Urban Development
Bao, C.; Fang, C. l.
China has been experiencing rapid urbanization since the reform and open policy launched in 1978, leading to the growth of urban water demands and aggravating water scarcity especially in the new millennium. Accordingly, water resources previously used for agriculture and environmental systems tend to be transferred to urban systems. Limited by the total quantity and frail environments, the patterns of water resources flows among different sectors and regions change obviously. Water related problems induced by rapid urbanization have become one of the key concerns for scientists and governments. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the new features of water resources flows related to urbanization in China, mainly with regard to bidirectional water resources flows between rural and urban areas, environmental and socio-economic systems, real and virtual water flows between the south and north. This paper also considers the socio-economic and environmental challenges which are resulted from water resources flows in such a case, and provides some countermeasures on how to promote water resources to flow healthily and swimmingly, so as to improve the urban development constrained by scarce water resources.

• pp.581-594
Evaluating Bank Filtration as an Alternative to the Current Water Supply from Deeper Aquifer: A Case Study from the Pannonian Basin, Serbia
Stauder, S.; Stevanovic, Z.; Richter, C.; Milanovic, S.; Tucovic, A.; Petrovic, B.
Groundwater from a depth of 100–200 m is the main source of public water supply in most municipalities in the Pannonian basin in central and southeastern Europe. Even though its quality does not always meet EU standards for drinking water�including those regarding arsenic�in many villages and even in some major cities no treatment except chlorination takes place. Of the several alternatives to improve the water supply situation in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia, re-orientation towards more centralized systems combined with river bank filtration as an additional and sustainable raw water resource was evaluated as the best. A hydrogeological and hydrochemical survey of the Tisa (or Tisza) River alluvium in the Padej test field confirmed the aptness of this approach. A good connection between the Tisa River bed and the alluvial aquifer consisting of fine-grained sand was found (average hydraulic conductivity of 5 × 10−5 m/s). With appropriately designed and managed wells, 80–100 l/s bank filtrate per km of river bank can be produced for water supply. Comprehensive analysis of the river water and river bank filtrate as well as a pilot treatment of the bank filtrate suggest that aeration-oxidation-flocculation-filtration-disinfection is a suitable technology for the Tisa River bank filtrate.

VOL 46; NUMB 3 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354

• pp.571-583
Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed
Bach, C.; Dauchy, X.; Chagnon, M. C.; Etienne, S.
A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

• pp.837-844
The impact of alum based advanced nutrient removal processes on phosphorus bioavailability
Li, B.; Brett, M. T.
Because eutrophication is a widespread consequence of wastewater discharges, there is a strong impetus to develop new approaches to remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. We examined the effluents from a pilot plant that is testing various alum based processes for achieving>99% P removal, however, it is not known how these advanced P removal technologies affect the bioavailability of P (BAP). We tested how the percent BAP (%BAP) varied with different P removal levels using an algal growth bioassay methodology. This facility reduced total P concentrations from 500mgL-1 in the pilot plant influent to 19+-4 (+-SD)mgL-1 in the final effluent, and our results showed that as the level of P removal increased, the %BAP of the product declined sharply, r2=0.98. Prior to alum treatment, the influent had an average %BAP of 79+-13%, and after three steps of alum-based removal the %BAP averaged 7+-4%. Thus, this alum based P removal process was very effective at sequestering the P forms that most readily stimulate algal growth. Further, our results show the final BAP of the effluent was only 50% of the “reactive” P concentration. These results have important implications for nutrient management and trading schemes.

How about this for an idea!

For £60, you can twin your toilet at home, work or school with a latrine in the remote Giharo Commune of Rutana Province, Burundi, a camp for Internally Displaced People in the DRC or a village in Cambodia.

UK-based charities Cord and Tearfund have linked up to bring you Toilet Twinning, a unique way to help transform lives in poor communities across the world.

Funding news:

AfDB Commits to Financing Ugandan Water and Sanitation Programme

12 January 2012: The African Development Bank (AfDB) has approved a US$ 67 million package to finance Uganda’s Water and Sanitation Programme, which will enable 2.4 million people in rural areas and small towns across Uganda to have access to improved water and sanitation by 2016.

The US$ 67 million deal, which was signed on 11 January 2012, will assist in achieving Uganda’s national goal of achieving universal access to water and sanitation services by 2035, in line with its commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Ugandan Water and Sanitation Programme is carried out under the auspices of the Joint Water and Sanitation Programme Support, which was created by the Ugandan Government to tackle gaps in the national coverage of potable water and improved sanitation. The Water and Sanitation Programme will, specifically, provide access to water and sanitation for 77% of Uganda’s rural population as well as 90% of small towns across Uganda.

The financing deal supports the achievement of the goals and objectives of the Rural Water and Sanitation Supply Initiative (RWSSI), an Africa-wide initiative led by the AfDB. The RWSSI aims to increase the access of adequate water and sanitation on the continent to 80% by 2015. [AfDB Press Release]

From Sanitation Updates:

Translating Research into National-Scale Change: A Case Study from Kenya of WASH in Schools
Call for proposals – Global Sanitation Fund Country Programme Monitor for a Sanitation & Hygiene Programme in Senegal
Posted: 17 Jan 2012

Haiti: Twitter data accurately tracked cholera outbreak
Posted: 16 Jan 2012 09:05 AM PST

Learning Fund – Menstrual Hygiene Management
Posted: 13 Jan 2012 11:10 AM PST