Tricia’s snippets 2012-01-26

A reminder of this excellent collection (first notified 16/11/2010):
PLoS collection on water and sanitation (in PLoS Medicine November 2010)
In November 2010, PLoS Medicine published a four-part series on water and sanitation. In the first article, Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and water supply demands more attention from health professionals and policymakers. In the second article, Paul Hunter and colleagues focus on water supply and argue that much more effort is needed to improve access to safe and sustainable water supplies. David Trouba and colleagues discuss the importance of improved sanitation to health and the role that the health sector can play in its advocacy in the third article. And in the final article, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all. The active involvement of health professionals in hygiene, sanitation, and water supply is crucial to accelerating and consolidating progress for health, argue the authors
From WSP: 
Sanitation Marketing Toolkit
Sanitation marketing is an emerging field with great promise to improve access and use of sanitation products and services. This toolkit and its print companion,  Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing, offer practitioners and program managers suggestions based on WSP’s experience implementing sanitation marketing in a range of diverse geographic, cultural, and political settings.

Identifying the Potential for Results-Based Financing for Sanitation [Scaling up rural sanitation]
Sophie Trémolet
November 2011 

From Sanitation Updates:

WASHplus Weekly – Review of Community-led Total Sanitation, 2011
Posted: 23 Jan 2012 10:30 AM PST
Year in Review – 10 Key Studies on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) from 2011

This issue of the WASHplus Weekly highlights 10 CLTS reports or studies published in 2011. The reports are reviews or evaluations of CLTS projects or programs in India, Indonesia, Madagascar, and Nigeria. One report (Kar) gives insights about features that have facilitated the rapid spread of CLTS in Africa and also discusses issues that limit its impact and dissemination. Please let WASHplus know if you have other recent resources on CLTS or if you have suggestions for future issues of the Weekly.

An open-access reference:
Sustainability 2011, 3(9), 1510-1516; doi:10.3390/su3091510

Using Small-Scale Adaptation Actions to Address the Food Crisis in the Horn of Africa: Going beyond Food Aid and Cash Transfers

Climate Change Adaptation and Development Initiative (CC DARE), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), P.O. Box 30552-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2011; in revised form: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text[211 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 20 September 2011 17:42 CET]

The original version is still available [211 KB, uploaded 15 September 2011 15:58 CET]
Abstract: The countries Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti are facing the worst food crisis of the 21st century as a result of devastating droughts. The crisis is causing starvation and leading to a lack of access to clean water and sanitation for over 12 million people. Not only are the direct drought effects endured now by the population, but they have weakened response capacity and created diminished prospects of ever achieving future water and food security. Over the coming decades, temperatures in this region will continue to rise and rainfall patterns will change. This will create major problems for food production and availability. Thus, building resilience in communities is indispensable as we adapt our farming systems to the challenges of climate change. This will require practical solutions that can build on processes involving adaptation to climate change. The lessons learned from the UN-led project in Uganda, demonstrate the value of small scale innovative interventions, carried out using democratic approaches to help support adaptation to climate change whilst progressing to achieve food security and chart a new Path to eliminate hunger. These lessons should be our guiding vision as we address the current droughts plaguing the Horn of East Africa and elsewhere.
Keywords: climate change adaptation; small scale solutions; food security
A selection from email alerts:

VOL 46; NUMB 3 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354

• pp.571-583
Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed
Bach, C.; Dauchy, X.; Chagnon, M. C.; Etienne, S.
A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

• pp.837-844
The impact of alum based advanced nutrient removal processes on phosphorus bioavailability
Li, B.; Brett, M. T.
Because eutrophication is a widespread consequence of wastewater discharges, there is a strong impetus to develop new approaches to remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. We examined the effluents from a pilot plant that is testing various alum based processes for achieving>99% P removal, however, it is not known how these advanced P removal technologies affect the bioavailability of P (BAP). We tested how the percent BAP (%BAP) varied with different P removal levels using an algal growth bioassay methodology. This facility reduced total P concentrations from 500mgL-1 in the pilot plant influent to 19+-4 (+-SD)mgL-1 in the final effluent, and our results showed that as the level of P removal increased, the %BAP of the product declined sharply, r2=0.98. Prior to alum treatment, the influent had an average %BAP of 79+-13%, and after three steps of alum-based removal the %BAP averaged 7+-4%. Thus, this alum based P removal process was very effective at sequestering the P forms that most readily stimulate algal growth. Further, our results show the final BAP of the effluent was only 50% of the “reactive” P concentration. These results have important implications for nutrient management and trading schemes.
VOL 64; NUMB 11 (2011)
ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.2143-2150
Analysis of trends in water quality: constructed wetlands in metropolitan Taipei
Cheng, B.-Y.; Liu, T.-C.; Shyu, G.-S.; Chang, T.-K.; Fang, W.-T.

• pp.2177-2184
Experimental study of a novel hybrid constructed wetland for water reuse and its application in Southern China
Zhai, J.; Xiao, H.W.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; He, Q.; Kerstens, S.M.

• pp.2217-2222
Performance of an in-situ rotating biological contactor in a recirculating aquaculture system
Marin, P.; Donoso-Bravo, A.; Campos, J.L.; Ruiz-Filippi, G.; Chamy, R.


VOL 64; NUMB 12 (2011)
ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.2362-2369
Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot
Werbeloff, L.; Brown, R.

• pp.2376-2380
Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice
Kantawanichkul, S.; Duangjaisak, W.

• pp.2410-2416
A metabolic network of a phosphate-accumulating organism provides new insights into enhanced biological phosphorous removal
Bordel, S.

• pp.2417-2424
Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system
Thibodeau, C.; Monette, F.; Glaus, M.; Laflamme, C.B.