Identifying the Potential for Results-Based Financing for Sanitation [Scaling up rural sanitation]
WASHplus Weekly – Review of Community-led Total Sanitation, 2011
Posted: 23 Jan 2012 10:30 AM PST
Year in Review – 10 Key Studies on Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) from 2011
This issue of the WASHplus Weekly highlights 10 CLTS reports or studies published in 2011. The reports are reviews or evaluations of CLTS projects or programs in India, Indonesia, Madagascar, and Nigeria. One report (Kar) gives insights about features that have facilitated the rapid spread of CLTS in Africa and also discusses issues that limit its impact and dissemination. Please let WASHplus know if you have other recent resources on CLTS or if you have suggestions for future issues of the Weekly.
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Using Small-Scale Adaptation Actions to Address the Food Crisis in the Horn of Africa: Going beyond Food Aid and Cash Transfers
VOL 46; NUMB 3 (2012)
Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed
Bach, C.; Dauchy, X.; Chagnon, M. C.; Etienne, S.
A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.
The impact of alum based advanced nutrient removal processes on phosphorus bioavailability
Li, B.; Brett, M. T.
Because eutrophication is a widespread consequence of wastewater discharges, there is a strong impetus to develop new approaches to remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. We examined the effluents from a pilot plant that is testing various alum based processes for achieving>99% P removal, however, it is not known how these advanced P removal technologies affect the bioavailability of P (BAP). We tested how the percent BAP (%BAP) varied with different P removal levels using an algal growth bioassay methodology. This facility reduced total P concentrations from 500mgL-1 in the pilot plant influent to 19+-4 (+-SD)mgL-1 in the final effluent, and our results showed that as the level of P removal increased, the %BAP of the product declined sharply, r2=0.98. Prior to alum treatment, the influent had an average %BAP of 79+-13%, and after three steps of alum-based removal the %BAP averaged 7+-4%. Thus, this alum based P removal process was very effective at sequestering the P forms that most readily stimulate algal growth. Further, our results show the final BAP of the effluent was only 50% of the “reactive” P concentration. These results have important implications for nutrient management and trading schemes.
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
VOL 64; NUMB 11 (2011)
Analysis of trends in water quality: constructed wetlands in metropolitan Taipei
Cheng, B.-Y.; Liu, T.-C.; Shyu, G.-S.; Chang, T.-K.; Fang, W.-T.
Experimental study of a novel hybrid constructed wetland for water reuse and its application in Southern China
Zhai, J.; Xiao, H.W.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; He, Q.; Kerstens, S.M.
Performance of an in-situ rotating biological contactor in a recirculating aquaculture system
Marin, P.; Donoso-Bravo, A.; Campos, J.L.; Ruiz-Filippi, G.; Chamy, R.
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
VOL 64; NUMB 12 (2011)
Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot
Werbeloff, L.; Brown, R.
Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice
Kantawanichkul, S.; Duangjaisak, W.
A metabolic network of a phosphate-accumulating organism provides new insights into enhanced biological phosphorous removal
Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system
Thibodeau, C.; Monette, F.; Glaus, M.; Laflamme, C.B.