Tricia’s snippets 2012-02-09



 From ODI:

Scaling up rural sanitation in Vietnam: political economy constraints and opportunities

ODI Working Papers 341, January 2012

From Sanitation Updates:

Rose George – Dirty little secret: the loo that saves lives in Liberia
Posted: 07 Feb 2012 10:36 AM PST

Germany: Metalheads get their own personal toilet
Posted: 05 Feb 2012 04:34 PM PST

Moving beyond construction: Asian practitioners identify sludge management as a major issue
Posted: 02 Feb 2012 12:53 AM PST

SuSanA is now five years old and still going strong!
Posted: 01 Feb 2012 06:45 AM PST

India, Bihar: Poo Highway – another
Latrines Cut Parasite Infections in Half
Posted: 31 Jan 2012 07:37 AM PST

India, Mumbai: man killed for taking too long in public toilet
Posted: 30 Jan 2012 05:25 PM PST

Sanitation is Key in Controlling Worm Diseases
Posted: 30 Jan 2012 11:20 AM PST

Health impacts of WASH & IAP interventions
Posted: 27 Jan 2012 09:10 AM PST

Liberia’s President signs WASH Compact
Asia: leadership for sanitation needed at both central and local level
Posted: 26 Jan 2012 04:39 AM PST

A selection from e-mail alerts:
VOL 11; NUMB 6 (2011)
ISSN 1606-9749
• pp.659-667
Converting rain into drinking water: quality issues and technological advances
Adler, I.; Hudson-Edwards, K.A.; Campos, L.C.
• pp.675-681
Managing uncertainty in the provision of safe drinking water
Hrudey, S.E.; Conant, B.; Douglas, I.P.; Fawell, J.; Gillespie, T.; Hill, D.; Leiss, W.; Rose, J.B.;
• pp.765-772
Bacteria removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters not applied with colloidal silver
Clark, K.N.; Elmore, A.C.

VOL 26; NUMB 3 (2012)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.623-641
Sustainability of Groundwater Resources in the North-Eastern Region of Bangladesh
Ali, M. H.; Abustan, I.; Rahman, M. A.; Haque, A. A.
• pp.733-749
Towards Quantification of the Water Footprint of Paper: A First Estimate of its Consumptive Component
Oel, P. R.; Hoekstra, A. Y.
Sanitation and Personal Hygiene: What Does It Mean to Poor and Vulnerable Women?
Reddy, B.S.; Snehalatha, M.

Squatting with Dignity: Lessons from India – Indian Sanitation
Bathran, R.

VOL 42; NUMB 2 (2010)
ISSN 0970-275X
• pp.84-91
Enabling 24×7 Water Supply using Hydraulic Model for Indian Cities
Bhole, K.; Mulay, R.; Kadu, M.; Tembhurkar, A.R.; Dahasahasra, S.
• pp.132-135
Arsenic Contamination in Groundwaters of Village Koudikasa in Rajnandgaon District (Chhattisgarh)
Deshpande, L.; Tijare, R.; Jasudkar, D.
• pp.142-144
Impacts of Fluoride content on Ground Water Quality
Pathak, A.; Soni, A.V.; Patel, A.S.
Title: Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management
by Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus
Environmental Impact Assessment Review [Environ. Impact Assess. Rev.]. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 140-150. Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Economics; Human rights; Reviews; Sanitation; Wastewater; environmental impact assessment; funds; infrastructure; innovations
Where public environmental funds support development of wastewater infrastructure, funding institutions ensure the economic use of funds, while the beneficiaries minimize their own costs. In rural areas, there is often a choice between decentralized or centralized (multi-village) systems: if the centralized system is most economic, then only this system is eligible for public funding. However, its implementation requires a voluntary cooperation of the concerned communities, who need to organize themselves to develop and run the infrastructure. The paper analyzes the social determinants of collaboration in a generic case study, using the following variables: method of (economic) assessment, modeled by the social discount rate, funding policy, modeled by the funding rate, and users’ self-organization, modeled by cost sharing. In a borderline situation, where the centralized system turns out to be most economic, but this assessment is contingent on the assessment method, collective action may fail: the advantages of collective action from funding are too small to outweigh organizational deficiencies. Considering in this situation sanitation as a human right, authors recommend using innovative forms of organization and, if these fail, reassessing either the amount of funding or the eligibility for funding of more acceptable alternatives.

Title: The effect of water and sanitation on child health: evidence from the demographic and health surveys 1986-2007
by Fink, Guenther; Guenther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth
International Journal of Epidemiology [Int. J. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1196-1204. Oct 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Age; Children; Developing countries; Historical account; Mortality; Sanitation; demography; infant mortality
Background Despite continued national and international efforts, access to improved water and sanitation remains limited in many developing countries. The health consequences of lacking access to water and sanitation are severe, and particularly important for child development.Methods To investigate the associations between child health and access to water and sanitation, we merged all available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with complete birth histories and water and sanitation information. The merged data set of 171 surveys includes information on 1.1 million children under the age of 5 years in 70 low- and middle-income countries over the period 1986-2007. We used logistic models to estimate the effect of water and sanitation access on infant and child mortality, diarrhoea and stunting.Results Access to improved sanitation was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.86), a lower risk of child diarorhea (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.90) and a lower risk of mild or severe stunting (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.71-0.75). Access to improved water was associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94) and a lower risk of mild or severe stunting (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.94), but did not show any association with non-infant child mortality (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88-1.04).Conclusions Although our point estimates indicate somewhat smaller protective effects than some of the estimates reported in the existing literature, the results presented in this article strongly underline the large health consequences of lacking access to water and sanitation for children aged <5 years in low- and middle-income countries.

Title: World Bank Structural Adjustment, Water, and Sanitation: A Cross-National Analysis of Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Shandra, Carrie L; Shandra, John M; London, Bruce
Organization & Environment [Organ. Environ.]. Vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 107-129. Jun 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Mortality; Sanitation; loans
Article Geographic Terms:; Africa
The authors conduct a cross-national analysis that seeks to accomplish two important goals. First, they test dependency theory’s hypotheses that World Bank structural adjustment adversely affects child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, they empirically evaluate the effect of access to clean water and basic sanitation on child mortality. In doing so, they use two-way fixed effects regression models to analyze child mortality using data on 31 nations and four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). They find substantial support for their first goal relating to dependency theory that when a Sub-Saharan African nation is under a World Bank structural adjustment loan, then it tends to have higher levels of child mortality. They also find support for their second goal concerning the importance of including environmental variables in cross-national research on health. Specifically, they find that higher levels of access to an improved water source and an improved sanitation facility are associated with lower levels of child mortality within Sub-Saharan African nations. The authors conclude by discussing the findings, theoretical implications, methodological implications, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.

Title: Effect of nitrogen loading rates on nitrogen removal by using a biological filter proposed for ventilated improved pit latrines
by Coetzee, M A A; Van der Merwe, M P R; Badenhorst, J
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology [Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 8, no. 2, 363 p. Apr 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Chemical oxygen demand; Economics; Filters; Hydraulics; Nitrogen; Nitrogen removal; Sanitation; Ventilation; Wastewater
Pit latrines are the most frequently used sanitation systems in developing countries because of weak infrastructure and poor economic wealth. A modified ventilated improved pit latrine, with a biological filter beneath is proposed to stabilize and to remove the bulk of the nitrogen from the liquid phase. Although the hydraulic loading rate in the proposed biological filter system was calculated to be ca 36 L/m super( 2)/d, significantly lower than the rates that are typical applied in standard rate biological filters (in the range of 1000 – 4000 L/m super( 2)/d) used to treat domestic wastewater; the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand concentrations are significantly higher in faecal sludge, namely 3 – 5 g /L and 20 – 50 g /L, respectively compared to ca 60 mg/L and 500 mg/L in standard rate biological filters. The biological filter was operated at nitrogen loading rates of 72, 145, 290 and 435 g/m super( 2)/d, respectively, until stable state conditions were obtained. The biological filter showed effective nitrogen removal between 72 and 434 g/m super( 2)/d and the best total nitrogen removal was obtained at 145 g/m super( 2)/d, namely 92 %. These results suggest that it should be possible to remove nitrogen effectively using a biological filter beneath a modified ventilated improved pit latrine.

Title: A Critical Review of Technologies for Pit Latrine Emptying in Developing Countries
by Thye, Yoke Pean; Templeton, Michael R; Ali, Mansoor
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology [Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 41, no. 20, pp. 1793-1819. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Developing countries; Fecal coliforms; Reviews; Sanitation; Technology; slums
Pit latrines are the most common forms of sanitation in urban slums and unplanned settlements in developing countries. Often, little consideration is given to how to deal with the pits once they fill up. The authors summarize pit emptying technologies that have been designed to date to overcome the problem of fecal sludge management in such settings and presents a framework to assist decision makers in identifying potential pit emptying methods based on local technical conditions.

Title: Evaluating the impact of water and sanitation quality on child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa.
by Waggoner, Kimberly Moore
Masters Abstracts International. Vol. 49, no. 05, 52 p. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Cost-benefit analysis; Dissertations; Drinking water; Malnutrition; Mortality; Sanitation; demography; water quality
Article Geographic Terms:; Africa
<?Pub Inc> Unclean drinking water and unhygienic means of waste disposal are common realities for a significant percentage of people in the developing world. The consequences of these deficiencies on various aspects of human development have been well studied. The relationship between water and sanitation quality and child malnutrition, which accounts for a significant percentage of all global child deaths, is not as clear. This thesis examines the correlation between improving the quality of drinking water sources and sanitation facilities and the likelihood that a child will be stunted, wasted, and/or underweight. Probit models with controls for child- and maternal-specific characteristics, household-specific variables, and individual countries are used to analyze these relationships in this study, using data collected from 2005-2009 by the Demographic and Health Surveys from 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Results suggest that there is a strong negative correlation between having optimal sanitation facilities and a decrease in the likelihood of a child being chronically malnourished, compared to having unimproved sanitation facilities. This relationship is much more consistently statistically significant than the relationship between improved water quality and decreased malnutrition. This study concludes that projects to improve sanitation should be given greater consideration and that the benefits from reduced child malnutrition should be included in cost-benefit analyses of water and sanitation projects.

Title: The microbial quality of drinking water in Manonyane community: Maseru District (Lesotho).
by Gwimbi, P
African health sciences, September 2011, 11(3):474-480
Provision of good quality household drinking water is an important means of improving public health in rural communities especially in Africa; and is the rationale behind protecting drinking water sources and promoting healthy practices at and around such sources.To examine the microbial content of drinking water from different types of drinking water sources in Manonyane community of Lesotho. The community’s hygienic practices around the water sources are also assessed to establish their contribution to water quality.Water samples from thirty five water sources comprising 22 springs, 6 open wells, 6 boreholes and 1 open reservoir were assessed. Total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were analyzed in water sampled. Results of the tests were compared with the prescribed World Health Organization desirable limits. A household survey and field observations were conducted to assess the hygienic conditions and practices at and around the water sources.Total coliform were detected in 97% and Escherichia coli in 71% of the water samples. The concentration levels of Total coliform and Escherichia coli were above the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines in each case. Protected sources had significantly less number of colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml of water sample compared to unprotected sources (56% versus 95%, p < 0.05). Similarly in terms of Escherichia coli, protected sources had less counts (7% versus 40%, p < 0.05) compared with those from unprotected sources. Hygiene conditions and practices that seemed to potentially contribute increased total coliform and Escherichia coli counts included non protection of water sources from livestock faeces, laundry practices, and water sources being down slope of pit latrines in some cases.These findings suggest source water protection and good hygiene practices can improve the quality of household drinking water where disinfection is not available. The results also suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for environmental and public health programmes, particularly those related to water and sanitation.

Title: Modelling cholera epidemics: the role of waterways, human mobility and sanitation.
by Mari, L; Bertuzzo, E; Righetto, L; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; Rinaldo, A
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society, February 7, 2012, 9(67):376-388
We investigate the role of human mobility as a driver for long-range spreading of cholera infections, which primarily propagate through hydrologically controlled ecological corridors. Our aim is to build a spatially explicit model of a disease epidemic, which is relevant to both social and scientific issues. We present a two-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of the pathogen Vibrio cholerae owing to host movement, described here by means of a gravity-model approach. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the extensive cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during 2000-2001. We show that long-range human movement is fundamental in quantifying otherwise unexplained inter-catchment transport of V. cholerae, thus playing a key role in the formation of regional patterns of cholera epidemics. We also show quantitatively how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect large-scale cholera transmission, and analyse the effects of different sanitation policies.

Title: Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.
by Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Speich, Benjamin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg
PLoS medicine, January 2012, 9(1):e1001162
In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR  =  0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00) were determined for T. trichiura, hookworm, and A. lumbricoides, respectively. The overall ORs, combining sanitation availability and use, were 0.51 (95% CI 0.44-0.61) for the three soil-transmitted helminths combined, 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.69) for A. lumbricoides, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.75) for T. trichiura, and 0.60 (95% CI 0.48-0.75) for hookworm.Despite a number of limitations (e.g., most studies used a cross-sectional design and were of low quality, with potential biases and considerable heterogeneity), our results reveal that sanitation is associated with a reduced risk of transmission of helminthiases to humans. Access to improved sanitation should be prioritized alongside preventive chemotherapy and health education to achieve a durable reduction of the burden of helminthiases. Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.

Title: Geographical analysis of the role of water supply and sanitation in the risk of helminth infections of children in West Africa.
by Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Barnett, Adrian G; Clements, Archie C A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, December 13, 2011, 108(50):20084-20089
Africa, Western: epidemiology; Child; *Geography; *Helminthiasis: epidemiology; Hookworm Infections: epidemiology; Humans; Hygiene; Models, Biological; Risk Factors; *Sanitation: statistics & numerical data; *Water Supply: analysis
Globally, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are major contributors to mortality and burden of disease. We aimed to quantify the role of WASH in the risk of Schistosoma hematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infection in school-aged children; to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of helminth infection due to WASH; and to spatially predict the risk of infection. We generated predictive maps of areas in West Africa without piped water, toilet facilities, and improved household floor types, using spatial risk models. Our maps identified areas in West Africa where the millennium development goal for water and sanitation is lagging behind. There was a generally better geographical coverage for toilets and improved household floor types compared with water supply. These predictions, and their uncertainty, were then used as covariates in Bayesian geostatistical models for the three helminth species. We estimated a smaller attributable fraction for water supply in S. mansoni (PAF 47%) compared with S. hematobium (PAF 71%). The attributable fraction of S. hematobium infection due to natural floor type (PAF 21%) was comparable to that of S. mansoni (PAF 16%), but was significantly higher for hookworm infection (PAF 86%). Five percent of hookworm cases could have been prevented if improved toilet facilities had been available. Mapping the distribution of infection risk adjusted for WASH allowed the identification of communities in West Africa where preventive chemotherapy integrated with interventions to improve WASH will yield the greatest health benefits.