Tricia’s snippets 2012-02-16


Sanitation and Hygiene Workshop 2012
South Asia Hygiene practitioners’ workshop, 31 Jan – 2 Feb 2012, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the third workshop is organised by BRAC, WaterAid, WSSCC, and IRC and is part of other learning and sharing workshops on sanitation and hygiene organised since 2007.

Global WASH Cluster (2011)
Disaster risk reduction and water,sanitation and hygiene…comprehensive guidance

A selection from email alerts:

VOL 14; NUMB 1 (2012)
ISSN 1366-7017
• pp.14-30
Water policy development and governance in the Caribbean: an overview of regional progress
Cashman, A.C.
• pp.80-98
Economic valuation of a multiple use wetland water system: a case study from India
Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, M.D.
• pp.99-111
Of transboundary basins, integrated water resources management (IWRM) and second best solutions: the case of groundwater banking in Central Asia
Karimov, A.; Giordano, M.; Mukherji, A.; Borisov, V.; Djumanov, J.
• pp.127-147
Linking resource users’ perceptions and collective action in commons management – an examination of water supply systems in Southern Senegal
Hanatani, A.; Fuse, K.
VOL 65; NUMB 2 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.247-253
UV disinfection of stabilization pond effluent: a feasible alternative for areas with land restriction
Alves, C.V.P.; Chernicharo, C.A.L.; von Sperling, M.
• pp.277-288
Icelandic experience with water safety plans
Gunnarsdottir, M.J.; Gardarsson, S.M.; Bartram, J.
• pp.368-379
Linking sanitation and wastewater treatment: from evaluation on the basis of effluent pollutant concentrations to evaluation on the basis of pollutant removal efficiencies
Tsuzuki, Y.

VOL 21; ISSU 6 (2010)
ISSN 1478-5277
• pp.232-240
Contemporary governance of transboundary groundwater resources: The Guarani Aquifer project
Green, B.A.
Sanitation and Public Health: A Heritage to Remember and Continue
Greenberg, M.R.
Framing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Needs Among Female-Headed Households in Periurban Maputo, Mozambique
Carolini, G.Y.
Title: Beyond hydrology in the sustainability assessment of dams: A planners perspective – The Sarawak experience
by Andre, Edward
Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam) [J. Hydrol. (Amst.)]. Vol. 412-413, pp. 246-255. 4 Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Catchments; Dams; Feasibility studies; Hydrology; Sanitation; Water wells; Watersheds; sustainability; water availability
Article Geographic Terms:; Borneo, Sarawak; Chile, Rio Grande do Sul, Santiago; Malaysia
There is increasing concern about the availability of water supplies in developing countries to provide clean drinking water and sanitation as well as providing for irrigation for food security. This has led to hydrologically led investigation to establish the feasibility and storage capacity of potentially new dam sites. This task has become more difficult for hydrologists and others with the uncertainties created by climate change and the measurement of the hydrological, geographical and ecological footprint of new dams. The questions asked by hydrologists are increasingly likely to be required to be cast in terms of the four pillars of sustainability; environmental, economic, social and institutional. Similarly, regional planners have to be more cognisant of the social outcomes of dam development while understanding the wider hydrological context at a watershed and basin level. The paper defines the concept of sustainability assessment in the context of resettlement and analyses its implications for the Bakun Hydro-electric project in Sarawak, Malaysia. Specifically it attempts to address the question of what social sustainability would really mean in the context of communities affected by dam projects, and their catchments using hermeneutics, tradeoffs and offsets. The findings of this question were presented at a hydrological conference held in Santiago in October 2010, based on the outcome of specific questionnaire responses received from indigenous peoples affected by the Bakun Dam hydroelectric project. The paper also offers some insights pertaining to the social sustainability assessment aspects of dams and their catchments.

Title: Modelling Chaos?Sanitation Options; Support and Communication Tool
by Castellano, D; de Bruijne, G; Maessen, S; Mels, A
Water Practice and Technology [Water Practice Technol.]. Vol. 6, no. 3, [np]. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
The selection of suitable sanitation options is a complex issue. There are many factors that influence the performance of each system. Sanitation suitable for use in low-income housing areas in developing countries is normally based on a combination of options specific to the local context. That makes it really difficult to develop an effective tool for decision-making. To date, decision support tools have failed to make a long-term impact on the choice for sanitation services in rural as well as urban and peri-urban settlements in developing countries. Most relate the choice of a sanitation option to one element (i.e. septic tank or pit latrine) rather than considering the sanitation system as a whole. Some lack transparency or are guided by personal choices and assumptions, which can include as well as exclude relevant aspects for the selection of sanitation systems. Decision-models are generally complex to understand and use and sometimes seem inconsistent. WASTE in collaboration with international experts is developing a practical support instrument to facilitate informed choice of sanitation systems. The tool is a knowledge sharing or awareness mechanism intended to provide a more comprehensive view of a settlement’s limitations on the one hand and available sanitation options on the other. It intends to assist a wide range of stakeholders from city officials, planners, CBO’s, users, service providers to financial and political authorities. Furthermore WASTE wants to present a practitioner’s tool that uses a three-step approach providing a simple interface, flexible framework and transparent outcome. This support tool can be used independently, integrated in strategic sanitation planning as well as provide the base-ground for the selection of sanitation options in a multi-stakeholder participatory process.

Title: WaSH Safety Plans: a risk-based approach to protecting public health
by Sanderson, R; McKenzie, N
Water Practice and Technology [Water Practice Technol.]. Vol. 6, no. 2, [np]. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
WaSH (Water, Sanitation & Hygiene) Safety Plans have been developed to provide a holistic approach to protecting public health through the assessment and management of risks from insufficient or unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices. A successful trial of a WaSH Safety Plan was conducted in an urban community in Kathmandu, Nepal. The trial demonstrated that WaSH Safety Plans are a powerful tool which quantifies the risks posed to the community and strengthens the decision making process in order to justify that interventions are targeted towards specific needs.

Title: Three years of operation of the urine diversion system at GTZ headquarters in Germany: user opinions and maintenance challenges
by Blume, S; Winker, M
Water Science & Technology [Water Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 579-586. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
In the main office building of GTZ in Eschborn, Germany a resource-oriented sanitation system containing urine diversion (UD) toilets and waterless urinals has been in operation since 2006. After 2.5 years of operating the system, a first overall evaluation of the system in terms of its acceptance amongst the users and the cleaning staff was conducted by carrying out two surveys and many interviews. The overall result is that most of the users appreciate the sanitation concept in theory but have problems with the technical design of the particular type of UD flush toilets installed here. The survey results also gave some directions towards which hygiene devices the users would appreciate in order to overcome their reluctance to sit down on the toilet seat in public buildings (the sitting being necessary for correct operation of the urine valve to separate urine from flush water). Also, it is difficult to convince the cleaning and facility maintenance staff of the necessity of special cleaning and preventative maintenance routines. Hence, before such systems can be widely used, clear cleaning routines and maintenance instruction are required as well as certain technical modifications of this type of UD flush toilets to optimise the urine/water separation and the flushing properties of the toilet.

Title: Integration of water reuse in the planning of livable cities
by Wilderer, Peter A; Huber, Hans
Intelligent Buildings International. Vol. 3, no. 2, 96 p. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Architecture; Buildings; Discharge; Flushing; Human beings; Liquids; Reuse; Waste water
Until recently, urban water management was preferentially focused on treating water for safe use by human beings, and treating wastewater for safe discharge into natural water bodies. Because water availability in the rapidly growing cities is very often extremely limited, a shift of focus towards recovery and reuse concepts appears to be inevitable. Representatives of water authorities, spatial and urban planners, architects, utility managers and the civil society are urged to realize that wastewater is a resource rather than a liquid to be wasted. After proper treatment, the wastewater is to be considered as an alternative source of usable water. It might be utilized for groundwater recharge, for irrigation of parks and gardens, for toilet flushing and even for direct human consumption. Centralized water reuse strategies have already been introduced in cities such as Singapore but need to be complemented by decentralized solutions down to the level of housing complexes, high-rise buildings, hotels and recreational resorts. The required technology is reasonably well developed and readily available. Urban planners and architects are invited to take advantage of such options.

Title: Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems
by Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.]. Vol. 96, pp. 48-59. 1 Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Climatic changes; Economics; Electric power generation; Perception; Sanitation; Urban areas; Water wells; population growth
The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world’s population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in “near-coastal zone”. Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

Title: Sanitation under challenge: contributions from the social sciences
by van Vliet, Bas J M; Spaargaren, Gert; Oosterveer, Peter
Water Policy [Water Policy]. Vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 797-809. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
This paper reviews the contribution the social sciences can make to the challenge of providing access to sustainable sanitation services and infrastructures for billions of people, in both the over- and underdeveloped parts of the world. The paper reviews and discusses three particular social scientific topics relevant for the sanitation challenge: the nature of socio-technical change, the issue of multilevel governance, and the role of the citizen-consumer. It is argued that sanitation is as much a social as it is a technical issue, and that the role of social scientific knowledge needs to be strengthened and given more attention in this context. The key contribution from the social sciences is to be found in its capacity to help widen the narrow, technical definitions of sanitation by including actors and their needs and belief systems, and by highlighting the alternative socio-technical tools and governance arrangements that are instrumental in moving beyond some of the dead-end roads of traditional water engineering and sanitation provision.

Title: Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia
by Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Zegeye, Hanibale Atsbeha
Waste Management & Research [Waste Manage. Res.]. Vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 854-862. Aug 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Hazardous wastes; Health care; High cycle fatigue; Legislation; Management; Training; Waste management; Wastes
Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed super(-1) day super(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed super(-1) day super(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p < 0.001). The percentage hazardous waste generated at government HCFs was more than at private HCFs (p < 0.05). The proportion of hazardous waste (20-63.1%) generated at the different HCFs was much higher than the WHO recommendation (10-25%). There was no waste segregation in most HCFs and only one used a complete color coding system. Solid waste and wastewater were stored, transported, treated and disposed inappropriately at all HCFs. Needle-stick injuries were prevalent in 25-100% of waste handlers employed at these HCFs. Additionally, low levels of training and awareness of waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa.

Title: Prediction of child health by household density and asset-based indices in impoverished indigenous villages in rural panama.
by Halpenny, Carli M; Koski, Kristine G; Valdés, Victoria E; Scott, Marilyn E
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, February 2012, 86(2):280-291
Abstract. Chronic infection over a 16-month period and stunting of preschool children were compared between more spatially dense versus dispersed households in rural Panamá. Chronic protozoan infection was associated with higher household density, lower household wealth index, poor household water quality, yard defecation, and the practice of not washing hands with soap before eating. Models for chronic diarrhea confirmed the importance of household wealth, water quality, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Furthermore, chronic protozoan infection was an important predictor for low height-for-age, along with low household wealth index scores, but not household density. Thus, despite better access to health related infrastructure in the more densely populated households, chronic protozoan infection was more common, and was associated with higher rates of child stunting, compared with more dispersed households.

Title: Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.
by Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Speich, Benjamin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg
PLoS medicine, January 2012, 9(1):e1001162
In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR ?=? 0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00) were determined for T. trichiura, hookworm, and A. lumbricoides, respectively. The overall ORs, combining sanitation availability and use, were 0.51 (95% CI 0.44-0.61) for the three soil-transmitted helminths combined, 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.69) for A. lumbricoides, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.75) for T. trichiura, and 0.60 (95% CI 0.48-0.75) for hookworm.Despite a number of limitations (e.g., most studies used a cross-sectional design and were of low quality, with potential biases and considerable heterogeneity), our results reveal that sanitation is associated with a reduced risk of transmission of helminthiases to humans. Access to improved sanitation should be prioritized alongside preventive chemotherapy and health education to achieve a durable reduction of the burden of helminthiases. Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.


From Sanitation Updates:

Relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality
Posted: 15 Feb 2012 01:27 PM PST

The effect of cord cleansing on neonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh
India – Government funds for sanitation inadequate, private sector should pool in
Vacancy: Programme Officer Sanitation and Hygiene
Posted: 09 Feb 2012

Global market for household cleaning agents to reach US$ 83.23 billion by 2015, according to business analysts
Posted: 07 Feb 2012 11:36 PM PST