Tricia’s snippets 2012-03-01

6th World Water Forum, Marseille, 12-17 March 2012
Access the Forum programme online :

Mozambique and beyond: Insights from a career at the forefront of sanitation
Sandy Cairncross

From The Center for Sustainable Development:
New CSDi Membership Opportunity: Gain access to hundreds of development resources

A selection from email alerts:

Reducing diarrhoeal diseases: lessons on sanitation from Ethiopia and Haiti
Wake, M. M.; Tolessa, C.
WAKE M.M. & TOLESSA C. (2011) Reducing diarrhoeal diseases: lessons on sanitation from Ethiopia and Haiti. International Nursing Review59, 34-39 Background:- Lack of basic sanitation is the root cause of the high incidence of diarrhoea and child mortality in developing countries. Nurses have unique opportunities to reduce the mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases by going beyond treatment to primary prevention. Aim:- This article applies current literature on sanitation and examples from two countries to enable nurses to participate in or lead sanitation improvement and diarrhoea reduction. Methods:- Major reports on sanitation and websites for various governmental and non-governmental organizations were reviewed for problems and strategies amenable to nursing action. Databases were searched for articles on the nursing role in sanitation using the keywords hygiene, sanitation, toilets, diarrhoea, hand washing and nurse. Concepts from the literature were integrated with experiences of nurses in two countries. Findings:- Several publications on sanitation improvement provided sufficient detail for nurses to utilize. No articles were found on the comprehensive role of nurses in sanitation. Community behaviour change in sanitation improvement was identified as critical in the literature and in the field. Conclusion:- While sanitation engineers and others may act to improve sanitation in a nation, they do not provide the ongoing health education needed for community behaviour change. Lessons from Ethiopia and Haiti show the value of community participation in sanitation planning, as well as the need for ongoing reinforcement. Nurses can save many lives by incorporating hygiene and sanitation strategies into their practice to reinforce efforts of others or to take leadership roles.

VOL 65; NUMB 4 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.589-595
Removal improvement of bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) in maturation ponds using baffles
Ouali, A.; Jupsin, H.; Vasel, J.L.; Marouani, L.; Ghrabi, A.
• pp.683-688
Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution by iron-coated sand and manganese-coated sand having different mineral types
Chang, Y.-Y.; Song, K.-H.; Yu, M.-R.; Yang, J.-K.
• pp.713-720
Performance evaluation of subsurface wastewater infiltration system in treating domestic sewage
Li, Y.-H.; Li, H.-B.; Pan, J.; Wang, X.; Sun, T.-H.

VOL 8; NUMB 3 (2011)
ISSN 1573-062X
• pp.135-153
Urban water and nutrient flows in Kumasi, Ghana
Erni, M.; Bader, H.-P.; Drechsel, P.; Scheidegger, R.; Zurbrugg, C.; Kipfer, R.

VOL 8; NUMB 6 (2011)
ISSN 1573-062X
• pp.379-395
Illicit discharge detection and elimination: Low cost options for source identification and trackdown in stormwater systems
Irvine, K.; Rossi, M.C.; Vermette, S.; Bakert, J.; Kleinfelder, K.

VOL 46; NUMB 6 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.1745-1754
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and MS2 coliphage: Effects of additives and alternative container materials
Fisher, M. B.; Iriarte, M.; Nelson, K. L.
The use of alternative container materials and added oxidants accelerated the inactivation of MS2 coliphage and Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. bacteria during solar water disinfection (SODIS) trials. Specifically, bottles made from polypropylene copolymer (PPCO), a partially UVB-transparent plastic, resulted in three-log inactivation of these organisms in approximately half the time required for disinfection in bottles made from PET, polycarbonate, or Tritan, which absorb most UVB light. Furthermore, the addition of 125 mg/L sodium percarbonate in combination with either citric acid or copper plus ascorbate tended to accelerate inactivation by factors of 1.4-19. Finally, it was observed that the inactivation of E. coli and enterococci derived from local wastewater was far slower than the inactivation of laboratory-cultured E. coli and Enterococcus spp., while the inactivation of MS2 was slowest of all. These results highlight the importance of UVB in SODIS under certain conditions, and also the greater sunlight resistance of some viruses and of bacteria of fecal origin, as compared to the laboratory-cultured bacteria commonly used to model their inactivation. Furthermore, this study illustrates promising new avenues for accelerating the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by solar disinfection.
• pp.1755-1762
Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands
Uggetti, E.; Garcia, J.; Lind, S. E.; Martikainen, P. J.; Ferrer, I.
Constructed wetlands are nowadays successfully employed as an alternative technology for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. In these systems organic matter and nutrients are transformed and removed by a variety of microbial reaction and gaseous compounds such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) may be released to the atmosphere. The aim of this work is to introduce a method to determine greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands (STW) and use the method in a full-scale system. Sampling and analysing techniques used to determine greenhouse gas emissions from croplands and natural wetlands were successfully adapted to the quantification of CH4 and N2O emissions from an STW. Gas emissions were measured using the static chamber technique in 9 points of the STW during 13 days. The spatial variation in the emission along the wetland did not follow some specific pattern found for the temporal variation in the fluxes. Emissions ranged from 10 to 5400 mgCH4/m2d and from 20 to 950 mgN2O/m2d, depending on the feeding events. The comparison between the CH4 and N2O emissions of different sludge management options shows that STW have the lowest atmospheric impact in terms of CO2 equivalent emissions (Global warming potential with time horizon of 100 years): 17kgCO2eq/PEy for STW, 36kgCO2eq/PEy for centrifuge and 162kgCO2eq/PEy for untreated sludge transport, PE means Population Equivalent.

From Sanitation Updates:

New study analyzes options for wastewater treatment in Lower Egypt
Posted: 28 Feb 2012 10:42 AM PST

Focusing Attention on the Critical Role of Gender in Water and Sanitation
Scientific American – Wasting Away: Can a Gates Foundation-Funded Toilet-Design Initiative End a Foul Practice?
Posted: 24 Feb 2012

Marketing Human Excreta: A Study of Possible Ways to Dispose of Urine and Faeces
Behavioral Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Senegal and Peru: Emergent Learning
Posted: 23 Feb 2012