Tricia’s snippets 2012-03-22

From Sanitation Updates:

Impact evaluation of drinking water supply and sanitation programmes in rural Benin
Posted: 21 Mar 2012

Durban to host 2012 World Toilet Summit
India: bride awarded US$ 10,000 for demanding toilet after marriage
“Toilet Team” director leaves Gates Foundation to lead CGIAR Consortium
Jay Graham – George Washington Global Environmental Health Program
Posted: 20 Mar 2012

Humanitarian crises and sustainable sanitation: lessons from Eastern Chad
Posted: 16 Mar 2012 10:20 AM PDT

India census: more people have a mobile phone than a household toilet
Estimating inequities in sanitation-related disease burden and estimating the potential impacts of propoor targeting,
School menstrual hygiene management in Malawi: more than toilets
Posted: 15 Mar 2012

Factors leading to poor water sanitation hygiene among primary school going children in Chitungwiza
Posted: 12 Mar 2012 10:14 AM PDT

Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says
India, Delhi: how sexual violence against women is linked to water and sanitation
Al Jazeera’s Inside Story discusses new WHO/UNICEF report on water and sanitation MDGs
Posted: 09 Mar 2012

Dear Congress: Support Rural Women by Lisa Schechtman
WASHplus Weekly – Gender Considerations for WASH
Posted: 08 Mar 2012

Senior Programme Officer, Sanitation and Hygiene Specialist Asia, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Netherlands [deadline 01 April]

Posted: 06 Mar 2012 09:26 AM PST

Menstrual hygiene: breaking the silence

Posted: 01 Mar 2012 08:39 AM PST

IDS Bulletin 43.2 (Jan 2012)
‘Some for All?’ Politics and Pathways in Water and Sanitation
A selection of article titles:

• IDS BULLETIN VOL 43; NUMB 2 (2012) pp.13-20
Barriers and Opportunities for Sanitation and Water for All, as Envisaged by the New Delhi Statement
Lane, J.
• IDS BULLETIN VOL 43; NUMB 2 (2012) pp.86-92
Sanitation: What’s the Real Problem?
Mara, D.
• IDS BULLETIN VOL 43; NUMB 2 (2012) pp.93-96
Why not Basics for All? Scopes and Challenges of Community-led Total Sanitation
Kar, K.
• IDS BULLETIN VOL 43; NUMB 2 (2012) pp.101-111
Equity and Inclusion in Sanitation and Hygiene in South Asia: A Regional Synthesis
Narayanan, R.; van Norden, H.; Gosling, L.; Patkar, A.

A selection from email alerts:

• LECTURE NOTES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING : Green Communications and Networks Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Communications and Networks (GCN 2011) VOL 113; PART 1 (2012) pp.497-502
Sustainable Ecological Sanitation System
Wenlin, M.; Jianwei, L.; Junzhi, Z.; Shuiwen, D.; Qi, Z.

VOL 104; NUMB 2 (2012)
ISSN 0003-150X
• pp.61-66
Pricing as a demand-side management tool: Implications for water policy and governance
Mehan, G.T.; Kline, I.

VOL 12; NUMB 1 (2012)
ISSN 1606-9749
• pp.38-44
Jordan water demand management study: on behalf of the Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation in cooperation with the French Development Agency (AFD)
Wolff, H.P.; Al-Karablieh, E.; Al-Assa d, T.; Subah, A.; Salman, A.Z.
• pp.90-100
Time of use tariffs: implications for water efficiency
Cole, G.; O Halloran, K.; Stewart, R.A.
• pp.101-108
Experiences and lessons learned from practical implementation of a software-supported Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach
Mayr, E.; Lukas, A.; Aichlseder, W.; Perfler, R.
• pp.109-116
Success or failure: demonstrating the effectiveness of a Water Safety Plan
Mudaliar, M.M.
• pp.117-123
WaterNetGen: an EPANET extension for automatic water distribution network models generation and pipe sizing
Muranho, J.; Ferreira, A.; Sousa, J.; Gomes, A.; Marques, A.S.

VOL 165; ISSU 3 (2012)
ISSN 1741-7589
• pp.161-170
Stormwater treatment using permeable pavements
Beecham, S.; Pezzaniti, D.; Kandasamy, J.
• pp.171-178
Removal of heavy metals in stormwater by hydrous ferric oxide
Mohammed, T.; Aryal, R.; Vigneswaran, S.; Loganathan, P.; Kandasamy, J.; Naidu, R.

VOL 65; NUMB 5 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.875-882
Determining potential indicators of Cryptosporidium oocysts throughout the wastewater treatment process
Cheng, H.-W.A.; Broaders, M.A.; Lucy, F.E.; Mastitsky, S.E.; Graczyk, T.K.
Most research on wastewater treatment efficiency compliance focuses on physicochemical and microbial indicators; however, very little emphasis has been placed so far on determining suitable indicator organisms to predict the discharge level of pathogens from treatment plants. In this study, raw wastewater, activated sludge, and the resulting final effluents and biosolids in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs A, B, C and D) were seasonally investigated for human-virulent water-borne pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and Giardia duodenalis, and microsporidia (e.g. Encephalitozoon hellem, E. intestinalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi) between 2008 and 2009. A suite of potential microbial indicators for human-virulent protozoa and microsporidia was also determined. A combination of multiple fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent antibody assays were applied to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, and microsporidian spores. Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens spores were cultivated in selective media. Positive correlations were found between the abundance of enterococci and E. coli and abundance of Cryptosporidium oocysts (rs 0.47, p 0.01) and Giardia cysts (rs 0.44, p 0.01) at WWTPs AD. Clostridium perfringens spores were positively correlated to Cryptosporidium oocysts (rs 0.40, p 0.01) and Giardia cysts (rs 0.46, p 0.01). There was a strong positive correlation between abundance of Giardia cysts and that of Cryptosporidium oocysts (rs 0.89, p 0.01). To sum up, a suite of faecal indicator bacteria can be used as indicators for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in these activated-sludge systems (WWTPs A, B and C). Overall, Giardia duodenalis was noted to be the best Cryptosporidium indicator for human health in the community-based influent wastewater and throughout the treatment process.
• pp.890-897
Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region
Foladori, P.; Ortigara, A.R.C.; Ruaben, J.; Andreottola, G.
One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m2/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m2/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88 for COD removal and from 78 to 75 for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m2 d1) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m2 d1 and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m2 d1). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area.
• pp.927-931
Plant algae method for arsenic removal from arsenic contaminated groundwater
de la Paix, M.J.; Lanhai, L.; de Dieu, H.J.; John, M.N.
Field studies were carried out in Urumqi River Basin in Northwest China. The study focused on experimentation on a plant algae method that was tested by taking various water chemistries into consideration. The results from a greenhouse experiment evaluated for four doses of P (0, 100, 200, and 300 mol/L) using two ferns (30 and 60 day old) on 15 L of contaminated groundwater per plant revealed that the biomass of 30-day old ferns gained was higher than 60-day fern. As solution-P increased from 0 to 450 mol/L, Phosphorus concentration in the fronds increased from 1.9 to 3.9 mg/kg and 1.95 to 4.0 mg/kg for 30-d and 60-d ferns respectively. This study showed that the plant algae method may be a good solution to maximize arsenic uptake in the short term under normal climatic conditions.

VOL 10; NUMB 1 (2012)
ISSN 1477-8920
• pp.116-129
A community-based approach to promote household water treatment in Rwanda
Chankova, S.; Hatt, L.; Musange, S.
Treatment of drinking water at the household level is one of the most effective preventive
interventions against diarrhea, a leading cause of illness and death among children in developing
countries. A pilot project in two districts in Rwanda aimed to increase use of Sûr’Eau, a chlorine
solution for drinking water treatment, through a partnership between community-based health
insurance schemes and community health workers who promoted and distributed the product.
Evaluation of the pilot, drawing on a difference-in-differences design and data from pre- and postpilot
household surveys of 4,780 households, showed that after 18 months of pilot implementation,
knowledge and use of the product increased significantly in two pilot districts, but remained
unchanged in a control district. The pilot was associated with a 40–42 percentage point increase in
ever use, and 8–9 percentage points increase in use of Sûr’Eau at time of the survey (self-reported
measures). Our data suggest that exposure to inter-personal communication on Sûr’Eau and
hearing about the product at community meetings and health centers were associated with an
increase in use.

Title: Geographies of shit: Spatial and temporal variations in attitudes towards human waste
by Jewitt, Sarah
Progress in Human Geography, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 608-626, Oct 2011
*Attitudes; *Sanitation; *Resource Management; *Geography; *Access; *Taboos; *Inequality; *Health; *Constraints
Taboos surrounding human waste have resulted in a lack of attention to spatial inequalities in access to sanitation and the consequences of this for human, environmental and economic health. This paper explores spaces where urgent environmental health imperatives intersect with deeply entrenched cultural norms surrounding human waste and the barriers they create for the development of more appropriate excreta management systems. The primary focus is on the global South (particularly India), although literature on sanitation histories in Europe and its colonies is drawn upon to illustrate spatial and temporal differences in cultural attitudes towards excrement. Adapted from the source document.

Title: Evolving policies and the roles of public and private stakeholders in wastewater and faecal-sludge management in India, China and Ghana
by Murray, Ashley; Mekala*, Gayathri Devi; Chen*, Xia
Water International [Water Int.]. Vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 491-504. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Business; China; Communities; Governments; Management; Policies; Sludge; Waste water
In this article the authors document evolving attitudes, policies and roles of stakeholders in wastewater and faecal-sludge management in India, China and Ghana. In each country there is momentum for expanding not just access to sanitation at the household/community levels, but also for greater treatment and safe end-of-life management of human excreta. Governments are increasingly looking to engage the private sector, but models of engagement that make a compelling business case and instil confidence in cost recovery will have to emerge before the private sector takes an active role in wastewater and faecal sludge treatment in low-income countries.

Title: Efficiency indicators for waste-based business models: fostering private-sector participation in wastewater and faecal-sludge management
by Murray, Ashley; Cofie*, Olufunke; Drechsel*, Pay
Water International [Water Int.]. Vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 505-521. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Aquaculture; Business; Indicators; Partnerships; Recovery; Reuse; Sludge; Waste water
Opportunities for public–private partnerships based on cost recovery from the reuse of human waste remain unexplored. In this paper, the authors present four potential business models involving aquaculture, biogas recovery, compost production and the use of faecal sludge as an industrial fuel, and describe their associated financial flows. The business models are based on efficiency indicators that can provide decision support to local authorities and entrepreneurs in choosing options that are best suited to local conditions and needs. The ultimate target should be that a portion of revenues from reuse can help finance less-profitable sections of the sanitation service chain.

Title: Framing water, sanitation, and hygiene needs among female-headed households in periurban Maputo, Mozambique.
by Carolini, Gabriella Y
American journal of public health, February 2012, 102(2):256-261
Objectives. Water, sanitation, and hygiene challenges in the global south require analyses that capture more than urban-rural differences. A new taxonomy is required to help systematize and respond to basic sanitary needs. My aim was to test a new framework for understanding these concerns in periurban spaces. Methods. I conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with a randomized sample, stratified by settlement density, of mostly female-headed households in KaTembe, the largest municipal district of Maputo, Mozambique. The survey included questions on the adequacy, accessibility, and affordability of water, sanitation facilities, and waste management as well as awareness of illnesses and safe hygiene practices. Results. Despite being part of a capital city, KaTembe residents face a diverse mixture of sanitary challenges, as revealed through an analysis of adequacy, accessibility, affordability, and awareness issues. The interaction of these 4 lenses provides insight into residents’ behaviors and the obstacles they face in securing adequate provisions. Conclusions. International water, sanitation, and hygiene studies continue to depend on urban-rural distinctions. However, an adequacy, accessibility, affordability, and awareness framework can improve the utility of their data.

Title: Linking sanitation and wastewater treatment: from evaluation on the basis of effluent pollutant concentrations to evaluation on the basis of pollutant removal efficiencies.
by Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki
Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 2012, 65(2):368-379
The evaluation of centralised wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in planning and management is sometimes based solely on effluent pollutant concentrations or pollutant loads. For sanitation purposes, the effluent pollutant concentrations/loads of WWTPs are important; of course, but from the point of view of wastewater treatment, the pollutant removal performance should also be evaluated. Focussing on low- and middle-income countries, especially those in tropical regions, published kinetics studies on biological WWTPs (such as oxidation ditches and aerated lagoons) are summarised in this paper. In most studies, effluent pollutant concentrations/loads are described as first-order linear functions of influent pollutant concentrations/loads. Therefore, pollutant removal efficiencies can be expressed as first-order linear functions of the reciprocal of influent pollutant concentrations/loads with negative coefficients. This implies that pollutant removal efficiencies increase with influent pollutant concentration/load increases. Based on pollutant removal efficiency functions, biological or ecological WWTPs when operating with small influent pollutant concentrations/loads should change their management to increase influent pollutant concentrations/loads in order to increase pollutant removal efficiencies. It may, however, be possible for technological development in wastewater treatment to overcome this problem.

Title: Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.
by Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Speich, Benjamin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg
PLoS medicine, January 2012, 9(1):e1001162
In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces) on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010). Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility), or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs) of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR ?=? 0.46 to 0.58). Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02), 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00) were determined for T. trichiura, hookworm, and A. lumbricoides, respectively. The overall ORs, combining sanitation availability and use, were 0.51 (95% CI 0.44-0.61) for the three soil-transmitted helminths combined, 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.69) for A. lumbricoides, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.75) for T. trichiura, and 0.60 (95% CI 0.48-0.75) for hookworm.Despite a number of limitations (e.g., most studies used a cross-sectional design and were of low quality, with potential biases and considerable heterogeneity), our results reveal that sanitation is associated with a reduced risk of transmission of helminthiases to humans. Access to improved sanitation should be prioritized alongside preventive chemotherapy and health education to achieve a durable reduction of the burden of helminthiases.

Title: An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality.
by Cheng, June J; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Watt, Susan; Newbold, Bruce K; Mente, Andrew
Environmental health : a global access science source, 2012, 11:4
ABSTRACT:Water and sanitation access are known to be related to newborn, child, and maternal health. Our study attempts to quantify these relationships globally using country-level data: How much does improving access to water and sanitation influence infant, child, and maternal mortality?Data for 193 countries were abstracted from global databases (World Bank, WHO, and UNICEF). Linear regression was used for the outcomes of under-five mortality rate and infant mortality rate (IMR). These results are presented as events per 1000 live births. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for the outcome of maternal mortality ratio (MMR).Under-five mortality rate decreased by 1.17 (95%CI 1.08-1.26) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001, for every quartile increase in population water access after adjustments for confounders. There was a similar relationship between quartile increase of sanitation access and under-five mortality rate, with a decrease of 1.66 (95%CI 1.11-1.32) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001. Improved water access was also related to IMR, with the IMR decreasing by 1.14 (95%CI 1.05-1.23) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001, with increasing quartile of access to improved water source. The significance of this relationship was retained with quartile improvement in sanitation access, where the decrease in IMR was 1.66 (95%CI 1.11-1.32) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001. The estimated odds ratio that increased quartile of water access was significantly associated with increased quartile of MMR was 0.58 (95%CI 0.39-0.86), p = 0.008. The corresponding odds ratio for sanitation was 0.52 (95%CI 0.32-0.85), p = 0.009, both suggesting that better water and sanitation were associated with decreased MMR.Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. If the world is to seriously address the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, then improved water and sanitation accesses are key strategies.