World Bank Webinar Series on Rural Water Supply: Tuesdays, April 3 – June 12, 2012
A selection from email alerts (apologies for any duplication of previous alerts):
VOL 37; NUMB 2 (2012)
Has water privatization peaked? The future of public water governance
de Gouvello, B.; Scott, C.
The privatization of water supply and institutional restructuring of water management – through decentralization and the penetration of global firms in local and regional markets – have been promoted as solutions to increase economic efficiency and achieve universal water supply and sanitation coverage. Yet a significant share of service provision and water resources development remains the responsibility of public authorities. The papers in this issue – with case evidence from Argentina, Chile, France, the USA, and other countries – address critical questions that dominate the international agenda on public versus private utilities, service provision, regulations, and resource development.
Changing paradigms in water and sanitation services in Argentina: towards a sustainable model?
de Gouvello, B.; Lentini, E.; Brenner, F.
Within a very short period of time, the Buenos Aires metropolitan region has implemented a number of different water and sanitation service models: a federal welfare model (Obras Sanitarias de la Nacion, OSN, created in 1912), a regional decentralized model (1981), concessions to the private sector (1993), and a new public organization (2006). Analysis of various facets of the sustainability of this new organization in Argentine cities demonstrates that it seems to approach the OSN model, but with territorial limitations and some features inherited from the “private parenthesis”, such as institutionalized regulation and social control of services.
The global commodification of wastewater
Scott, C.; Raschid-Sally, L.
With growing scarcity and competition for water, urban wastewater is increasingly marketable because of its water and nutrient values. Commodification has implications for the current “residual” uses of wastewater (particularly by poor farmers in developing countries), for the risk of disease transmission, and for wastewater-dependent agro-ecosystems. Using examples from Pakistan, India, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mexico, and the United States, this paper contrasts commodification as it occurs in the developed and developing worlds and demonstrates the need for public information and coherent institutional frameworks, including private- and public-sector participation
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT -DORDRECHT-
VOL 26; NUMB 5 (2012)
A Comparative Study of the Performance of Public Water Rights Allocation in China
Zheng, H.; Wang, Z.; Hu, S.; Wei, Y.
Pubic water rights allocation, in which water resources are allocated to users administratively as shared public property, is an effective and powerful policy for water resource management. Dozens of public water right allocation systems have been established in China since 1998 without any unified standard across the country. An indicator-based assessment approach, based on equity, efficiency and sustainability, is proposed in this study to evaluate the performance of public water rights allocation systems in China in a quantitative way. The approach was applied in 11 river basins of China in which water rights have been defined. The results show that the performance of the allocation systems depends on the spatial density and exploitation ratio of the water resources. The performance of allocated water rights systems is better in river basins with greater resource densities and smaller water exploitation ratios. This assessment approach is very useful for evaluating policy options for public water rights allocation with appropriate consideration of the local conditions of the river basins.
URBAN WATER JOURNAL -AMSTERDAM THEN LONDON-
VOL 9; NUMB 2 (2012)
State-of-the-technology review on water pipe condition, deterioration and failure rate prediction models!
St. Clair, A.; Sinha, S.
This paper presents a state-of-the-technology literature and current practice review on water pipe condition, deterioration and failure rate prediction models in order to identify the gap between the models found in literature and those currently used by utilities around the world. Researchers have developed various methodologies in determining pipe condition and failure prediction over the last three decades. Their efforts are discussed in many literatures and articles but are not summarised by one document. In this report, more than 50 articles were reviewed from the last decade and are presented based on the type of methodology utilised. Nine utilities across the world with significant undertakings of water pipe infrastructure management are also presented which underline the current practice. In summary, both the literature and current practice are summarised to identify the gap between the models found in literature and water utility asset management practices.
Performance of a dry detention pond: case study of Kota Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia
Liew, Y. S.; Selamat, Z.; Ab. Ghani, A.; Zakaria, N. A.
The Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) was published in 2001 by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), which promotes Best Management Practices (BMPs) aimed at stormwater management at the source. The construction of detention ponds has been strongly encouraged for water quantity control for new housing developments. This study focuses on the evaluation, using the InfoWorks Collection Systems (CS) model, of the effectiveness of a constructed dry detention pond built in 1996 located at Kota Damansara, Selangor. Hydrological and hydraulic data were collected for model calibration and verification. The study indicates that the dry detention pond can achieve its design goals, catering the flow from a 100-year Average Recurrence Interval or ARI storm and complies with the design requirement in the MSMA for major urban stormwater systems.
VOL 46; NUMB 8 (2012)
Up-front rejections or which type of paper should I not submit to Water Research
van Loosdrecht, M. C.; Henze, M.
• DESIGN STUDIES VOL 33; NUMB 3 (2012) pp.298-317
Designing sustainable sanitation: Involving design in innovative, transdisciplinary research
Lopes, A. M.; Fam, D.; Williams, J.
This paper introduces an innovative pilot project where an alternative system of sanitation to capture, treat and reuse urine in agricultural trials is being undertaken in a university setting. The paper outlines the emerging theory and practise of Transition Management (TM) and identifies a lack of attention to the end-user in transition experiments to date. This project situates design as a core component in the social process of transitioning to a novel system of sanitation. Students across two design schools developed visual prototypes to introduce the project to the target audiences, which were tested during a pre-pilot installation. Initial results support the guiding hypothesis that design has a critical role to play in facilitating social learning in system innovation.
Title: Participatory Decision Making for Sanitation Improvements in Unplanned Urban Settlements in East Africa
by Hendriksen, Astrid; Tukahirwa, Judith; Oosterveer, Peter JM; Mol, Arthur PJ
Journal of Environment and Development [J. Environ. Dev.]. Vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 98-119. Mar 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Indexing in process
Solving the problem of inadequate access to sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa needs to combine social and technical dimensions in such a manner that they fit the local context. The modernized mixtures approach offers an analytical framework for identifying such solutions, but this approach requires effective methods for participatory decision making. This article intends to contribute to filling this gap by identifying and further elaborating an appropriate multicriteria decision-making tool. The multicriteria decision analysis methodology, Proact 2.0, offers an adequate solution as it creates the possibility to connect knowledge, experiences, and preferences from scientists, experts, and policy makers with those of the end users. We show in particular that users not always prefer the most optimal sanitation system, defined from an “expert” point of view. This article concludes that using Proact 2.0 can lead to substantial improvements in decision making in the field of sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa.
Title: Investigation on Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment Models in Chaohu Lake Basin
by Huang, Z-P; Zhang, K-Q; Shen, F-J; Ma, Y-H; Zhai, Z-W; Sun, L
Journal of Agro-Environment Science [J. Agro-Environ. Sci.]. Vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 179-184. 20 Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Artificial wetlands; Capital costs; Construction industry wastes; Economics; Rural areas; Sanitation; Wastewater treatment; lake basins; water bodies
Article Geographic Terms:; China, People’s Rep., Anhui Prov., Chaohu L.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the typical demonstration projects of rural domestic wastewater treatment at nine different counties in Chaohu Lake Basin. Results showed that there were four kinds of rural domestic wastewater treatment models, which were decentralized sanitation anaerobic- constructed wetland centralized treatment system, three-kind wastewater separation treatment system, centralized treatment system and centralized treatment of integrated equipments system respectively at present in Chaohu Lake Basin. The decentralized sanitation anaerobic-constructed wetland centralized treatment system could reduce the capital costs of sewage pipe network construction, which would be a kind of sustainable model for the rural area with good planning. The three-kind wastewater separation treatment system could treat the toilet blackwater in situ, which could save investment cost and operate well with the poor-found wastewater collection system and provide application for the rural area far way from the public water body with undeveloped economy. The centralized treatment system and centralized treatment of integrated equipments system could control and manage the process of wastewater treatment very well, which need the well-found wastewater collection system and large amount of investment and both were suitable for the rural area with developed economy and good planning. According to the analyses of running effects and operational management of the four kinds of rural domestic wastewater treatment models, the design of rural domestic wastewater treatment for Chaohu Lake Basin could be provided and mitigate the pollutants brought by rural domestic wastewater.
Title: Water Systems Meeting Everyday Life: A Conceptual Model of Household Use of Urban Water and Sanitation Systems
by Krantz, H
Public Works Management & Policy [Public Works Manage. Policy]. Vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 103-119. Jan 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Concrete; Recycling; Sanitation; Technology; Waste management; Wastewater; households; sustainability; water use
The urban water and sanitation system has been questioned from various sustainability perspectives but, like other large technical systems, it is highly path dependent and resistant to change. The response to environmental demands is typically to optimize existing technology and procedures, adding new system-compatible technology, and to introduce policy instruments to improve water use by households. However, these policy instruments are general measures that touch on everyday life in various household contexts. Despite the geographical extension of water and sanitation networks, any policy instrument or systemic change will be interpreted and understood in local contexts, and users in households act locally. Nevertheless, conceptual discussion of the interconnectedness of system design, household context, and user routines is lacking. This article aims to provide a conceptual model combining systems and everyday-life views in the same framework. The model is applied to the concrete Swedish example of phosphorous recycling from wastewater.
Title: The right to water in rural Punjab: Assessing equitable access to water in the context of the ongoing Punjab Rural Water Supply Project
by Samra, Shamsher; Crowley, Julia; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.
Health and Human Rights, vol. 13, no. 2, 2011
Drinking water; Rural communities; Water supplies; Rural areas; Affordability; Accessibility
Although India is poised to meet its Millennium Development Goal for providing access to safe drinking water, there remains a worrying discrepancy in access between urban and rural areas. In 2006, 96% of the urban population versus 86% of the rural population obtained their drinking water from an improved water source. To increase access to potable water in rural areas, the World Bank and the state of Punjab have implemented the Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRWSS) to improve or construct water supply systems in 3,000 villages deemed to have inadequate access to clean drinking water. This study aimed to examine whether the right to water was fulfilled in six towns in rural Punjab during implementation of the PRWSS. The normative content of the right to water requires that water be of adequate quantity, safety, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability in terms of quality. While our findings suggest that the PRWSS improved water quality, they also indicate that access to water was limited due to affordability and the low socioeconomic status of some people living in the target communities. Adapted from the source document.
Title: Modelling cholera epidemics: the role of waterways, human mobility and sanitation
by Mari, L; Bertuzzo, E; Righetto, L; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; Rinaldo, A
Journal of the Royal Society of London Interface [J. R. Soc. Lond. Interface]. Vol. 9, no. 67, pp. 376-388. 7 Feb 2012.
Article Subject Terms:; Cholera; Data processing; Disease transmission; Drinking water; Epidemics; Infection; Mobility; Models; Pathogens; Sanitation; Spreading
Article Taxonomic Terms:; Vibrio cholerae
We investigate the role of human mobility as a driver for long-range spreading of cholera infections, which primarily propagate through hydrologically controlled ecological corridors. Our aim is to build a spatially explicit model of a disease epidemic, which is relevant to both social and scientific issues. We present a two-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of the pathogen Vibrio cholerae owing to host movement, described here by means of a gravity-model approach. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the extensive cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during 2000-2001. We show that long-range human movement is fundamental in quantifying otherwise unexplained inter-catchment transport of V. cholerae, thus playing a key role in the formation of regional patterns of cholera epidemics. We also show quantitatively how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect large-scale cholera transmission, and analyse the effects of different sanitation policies.
Title: A Critical Review of Technologies for Pit Latrine Emptying in Developing Countries
by Thye, Yoke Pean; Templeton, Michael R; Ali, Mansoor
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology [Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 41, no. 20, pp. 1793-1819. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Decision making; Developing countries; Emptying; Latrines; Management; Pits; Settlements; Sludge
Pit latrines are the most common forms of sanitation in urban slums and unplanned settlements in developing countries. Often, little consideration is given to how to deal with the pits once they fill up. The authors summarize pit emptying technologies that have been designed to date to overcome the problem of fecal sludge management in such settings and presents a framework to assist decision makers in identifying potential pit emptying methods based on local technical conditions.
Title: Economic assessments of small-scale drinking-water interventions in pursuit of MDG target 7C
by Cameron, John; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R; Pedley, Steve; Pond, Katherine
Science of the Total Environment [Sci. Total Environ.]. Vol. 410, no. 411, pp. 8-15. 1 Dec 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Assessments; Cost benefit analysis; Cost effectiveness; Cost engineering; Drinking water; Economics; Rural; Rural areas
This paper uses an applied rural case study of a safer water intervention in South Africa to illustrate how three levels of economic assessment can be used to understand the impact of the intervention on people’s well-being. It is set in the context of Millennium Development Goal 7 which sets a target (7C) for safe drinking-water provision and the challenges of reaching people in remote rural areas with relatively small-scale schemes. The assessment moves from cost efficiency to cost effectiveness to a full social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) with an associated sensitivity test. In addition to demonstrating techniques of analysis, the paper brings out many of the challenges in understanding how safer drinking-water impacts on people’s livelihoods. The SCBA shows the case study intervention is justified economically, though the sensitivity test suggests ‘downside’ vulnerability.
Title: Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries.
by Bain, Rob Es; Gundry, Stephen W; Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Pedley, Steve; Bartram, Jamie K
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, March 1, 2012, 90(3):228-235A
To determine how data on water source quality affect assessments of progress towards the 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on access to safe drinking-water.Data from five countries on whether drinking-water sources complied with World Health Organization water quality guidelines on contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates in 2004 and 2005 were obtained from the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project. These data were used to adjust estimates of the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking-water at the MDG baseline in 1990 and in 2008 made by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, which classified all improved sources as safe.Taking account of data on water source quality resulted in substantially lower estimates of the percentage of the population with access to safe drinking-water in 2008 in four of the five study countries: the absolute reduction was 11% in Ethiopia, 16% in Nicaragua, 15% in Nigeria and 7% in Tajikistan. There was only a slight reduction in Jordan. Microbial contamination was more common than chemical contamination.The criterion used by the MDG indicator to determine whether a water source is safe can lead to substantial overestimates of the population with access to safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. Monitoring drinking-water supplies by recording both access to water sources and their safety would be a substantial improvement.
Title: The Politics of Assessment: Water and Sanitation MDGs in the Middle East
by Zawahri, Neda; Sowers, Jeannie; Weinthal, Erika
Development and Change, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1153-1178, 2011
*Sanitation; *Services; *Pollution; *Incentives; *Middle East; *Statistics; *North Africa; *International Organizations; *Antipoverty Programs
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is generally considered to be making adequate progress towards meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls for halving the proportion of the population with inadequate access to drinking water and sanitation. Progress towards achieving Target 10 is evaluated by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), run by UNICEF and WHO. This article shows that the assessment methodologies employed by the JMP significantly overstate coverage rates in the drinking water and sanitation sectors, by overlooking and ‘not counting’ problems of access, affordability, quality of service and pollution. The authors show that states in MENA often fail to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services, particularly in densely populated informal settlements, and that many centralized water and sanitation infrastructures contribute to water pollution and contamination. Despite the glaring gap between the MDG statistics and the evidence available from national and local reports, exclusionary political regimes in the region have had few incentives to adopt more accurate assessments and improve the quality of service. While international organizations have proposed some reforms, they too lack incentives to employ adequate measures that gauge access, quality and affordability of drinking water and sanitation services. Adapted from the source document.
Title: Coping with urban flooding: a study of the 2009 Kurnool floods, India
by Ramachandraiah, C |a C Ramachandraiah
Environment and Urbanization [Environ. Urban.]. Vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 431-446. Oct 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Drawing; Feet; Flooding; Floods; Handles; Sanitation services; Towns; Urbanization
This paper describes the flooding of Kurnool town in Andhra Pradesh, India, in October 2009 and explains how several factors combined to cause one of the worst floods in 100 years. Several areas were submerged in more than 30 feet of water and it took more than three days for the water to recede completely from the town. Drawing on official information and on the responses of affected people, the paper discusses the situation during and after the floods, especially around water and sanitation services, the distribution of relief materials and the post-flood recovery process. Based on this information, the paper proposes several recommendations that are relevant to the policy framework to handle urban floods in similar situations.
Title: Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria
by Onabolu, B; Jimoh, OD; Igboro, SB; Sridhar, MKC; Onyilo, G; Gege, A; Ilya, R
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C [Phys. Chem. Earth (A,B,C)]. Vol. 36, no. 14-15, pp. 1189-1196. 2011.
Article Subject Terms:; Contamination; Deterioration; Drinking water; Households; Local government; Monitoring; Safety; Water quality
In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.
Title: Effect of aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content on the stability and maturity of compost.
by Guo, Rui; Li, Guoxue; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Chen, Tongbin; Zhao, Yuanqiu; Shen, Yujun
Bioresource technology, May 2012, 112:171-178
To estimate the order of importance of factors affecting the stability and maturation of compost, pig feces and corn stalks were co-composted at different aeration rates (AR: 0.24, 0.48, 0.72Lkg(-1)dry matter (DM)min(-1)), C/N ratios (15, 18, 21), and moisture contents (MC: 65%, 70%, 75%). The thermophilic phase with all treatments was long enough to meet sanitation requirements. The oxygen content and N losses increased with increasing AR, but no significant differences were observed between the moderate and high treatments. The compost with the lowest initial C/N ratio was significantly different from the other treatments and had the lowest germination index (53-66%). AR was the main factor influencing compost stability, while the C/N ratio mainly contributed to compost maturity, and the MC had an insignificant effect on the compost quality. The recommended parameters for composting are an AR of 0.48Lkg(-1)DMmin(-1) and a C/N ratio of 18 with MCs of 65-75%.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Title: Capital and operating costs of full-scale fecal sludge management and wastewater treatment systems in Dakar, Senegal.
by Dodane, Pierre-Henri; Mbéguéré, Mbaye; Sow, Ousmane; Strande, Linda
Environmental science & technology, April 3, 2012, 46(7):3705-3711
A financial comparison of a parallel sewer based (SB) system with activated sludge, and a fecal sludge management (FSM) system with onsite septic tanks, collection and transport (C&T) trucks, and drying beds was conducted. The annualized capital for the SB ($42.66 capita(-1) year(-1)) was ten times higher than the FSM ($4.05 capita(-1) year(-1)), the annual operating cost for the SB ($11.98 capita(-1) year(-1)) was 1.5 times higher than the FSM ($7.58 capita(-1) year(-1)), and the combined capital and operating for the SB ($54.64 capita(-1) year(-1)) was five times higher than FSM ($11.63 capita(-1) year(-1)). In Dakar, costs for SB are almost entirely borne by the sanitation utility, with only 6% of the annualized cost borne by users of the system. In addition to costing less overall, FSM operates with a different business model, with costs spread among households, private companies, and the utility. Hence, SB was 40 times more expensive to implement for the utility than FSM. However, the majority of FSM costs are borne at the household level and are inequitable. The results of the study illustrate that in low-income countries, vast improvements in sanitation can be affordable when employing FSM, whereas SB systems are prohibitively expensive.
Title: Use of human urine in phytoplankton production as a tool for ecological sanitation.
by Jana, B B; Rana, S; Bag, S K
Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 2012, 65(8):1350-1356
Measurements of primary productivity of phytoplankton and enumeration of the counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) were made in the water of 12 experimental tanks used for 3 treatments and control in triplicate as follows: (a) fresh human urine (0.02%), (b) stored human urine (0.02%), (c) mixed urine of fresh and stored human urine (0.02%) and (d) control without input of urine. The gross primary productivity of phytoplankton was highest in the stored urine treated tanks (508 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) followed by fresh urine (353 mg C m(-2) h(-1)), mixed urine (303 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and control (215 mg C m(-2) h(-1)). Similar was the response of net primary production of phytoplankton. The mean count of HB observed in stored urine fed tanks was significantly higher (59-184%) than the remaining urine fed treatments. The mean count of Escherichia coli did not differ from urine treated tanks to control implying the good quality of water. The concentration of dissolved oxygen of water (7.6 to 12.8 mg L(-1)) in these tanks remained satisfactory for aquaculture. The mean concentration of ammonium-N observed in fresh urine treated tanks was more than 10 times higher than the remaining treatments employed. In contrast, the level of phosphate and electrical conductivity in the stored urine treated tanks were significantly higher than the remaining treatments. It is proposed that stored urine with a significantly reduced load of E. coli might be an effective low cost liquid fertilizer for algal biomass production.
From Sanitation Updates:
GOOD PRACTICES IN COMMUNITY-LED TOTAL SANITATION: Plan’s experience in Uganda 2007 – 2010. May 2011.
Tuvalu: composting toilets help conserve water and boost livelihoods in Pacific islands
Posted: 09 Apr 2012 05:57 AM PDT
WASHplus Weekly – The informal sector and solid waste management
Posted: 06 Apr 2012 07:01 AM PDT
U.S. Department of State and Partners Solicit Creative Waste Management Solutions
Posted: 04 Apr 2012 08:46 AM PDT
New initiative supports national sanitation planning
Posted: 02 Apr 2012 08:20 AM PDT