Tricia’s snippets 2012-07-05

Rather a longer list today as there has been a 3-week gap!

World Bank Water Unit
(many interesting recent publications here)

WSP Water and Sanitation Program
Leading to:
Water Hackathon: lessons learned (May 2012)
(annoyingly you need either a Scribd or Facebook account to download or print!)

Water Services that last
A resource for building sustainable rural water services from IRC’s Triple-S initiative

DFID-funded research
Smart Water Systems Phase II: inception report October-December 2011
The Smart Water System project led by the University of Oxford, is coupling mobile banking and smart water metering. It will improve the operational and financial performance of water service utilities in Africa through driving down water payment transaction costs and identifying and reducing non-revenue water losses. This approach removes the standpipe middlemen that cost the urban poor in Africa an estimated $650m every year, whilst also generating accurate and reliable data that can enhance water sector accountability and transparency.

From Sanitation Updates:

Productive sanitation – the honey suckers of Bengaluru
UNDP to establish Global Centre for Public Service Excellence in Singapore
The ‘Tampon King’ who sparked a period of change for India’s women
Posted: 03 Jul 2012

Is the UK’s recognition of right to sanitation half-hearted?
Posted: 29 Jun 2012 07:16 AM PDT

 Why Mr Khombe is building ecosan latrines for his neighbours
Posted: 27 Jun 2012 

Pneumonia and diarrhoea: Tackling the deadliest diseases for the world’s poorest children
Performance of a novel, on-site, worm based sanitation system for peri-urbanvenvironments
Posted: 26 Jun 2012

PATH – Developing an Affordable Sanitary Pad
Posted: 21 Jun 2012 09:03 AM PDT

 A selection from email alerts:

• WORLD DEVELOPMENT -OXFORD- VOL 40; NUMB 8 (2012) pp.1546-1568
Setting Priorities, Targeting Subsidies among Water, Sanitation, and Preventive Health Interventions in Developing Countries
Whittington, D.; Jeuland, M.; Barker, K.; Yuen, Y.
SummaryThe paper challenges the conventional wisdom that water and sanitation improvements and other preventive health interventions are always a wise economic investment. Costs and benefits are presented for six water, sanitation, and health programs-handwashing, sanitation, point-of-use filtration and chlorination, insecticide-treated bed nets, and cholera vaccination. Model parameters are specified for a range of conditions that are plausible for locations in developing countries. We find that the parameter values needed for such cost-benefit calculations are not available for setting global priorities. We reflect on the implications of our findings for more “evidence-based” planning of public health and development interventions.

VOL 46; NUMB 12 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.3903-3912
Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments
Sengupta, M. E.; Andersen, T. J.; Dalsgaard, A.; Olsen, A.; Thamsborg, S. M.
Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms-1 newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems.

VOL 46; NUMB 13 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.3967-3976
The use of Bassia indica for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands
Shelef, O.; Gross, A.; Rachmilevitch, S.
The treatment and reuse of wastewater in constructed wetlands offers a low-cost, environmentally-friendly alternative for common engineered systems. Salinity in treated wastewater is often increased, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, and may harm crops irrigated from wetlands. We have strong evidence that halophyte plants are able to reduce the salinity of wastewater by accumulating salts in their tissues. Bassia indica is an annual halophyte with unique adaptations for salt tolerance. We performed three experiments to evaluate the capability of B. indica for salt phytoremediation as follows: a hydroponic system with mixed salt solutions, a recirculated vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW) with domestic wastewater, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) for treating goat farm effluents. B. Indica plants developed successfully in all three systems and reduced the effluent salinity by 20-60% in comparison with unplanted systems or systems planted with other wetland plants. Salinity reduction was attributed to the accumulation of salts, mainly Na and K, in the leaves. Our experiments were carried out on an operative scale, suggesting a novel treatment for green desalination in constructed wetlands by salt phytoremediation in desert regions and other ecosystems.
• pp.4301-4313
Microbial quality assessment of household greywater
O’Toole, J.; Sinclair, M.; Malawaraarachchi, M.; Hamilton, A.; Barker, S. F.; Leder, K.
A monitoring program was undertaken to assess the microbial quality of greywater collected from 93 typical households in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 185 samples, comprising 75 washing machine wash, 74 washing machine rinse and 36 bathroom samples were analysed for the faecal indicator Escherichia coli. Of these, 104 were also analysed for genetic markers of pathogenic E coli and 111 for norovirus (genogroups GI and GII), enterovirus and rotavirus using RT-PCR. Enteric viruses were detected in 20 out of the 111 (18%) samples comprising 16 washing machine wash water and 4 bathroom samples. Eight (7%) samples were positive for enterovirus, twelve (11%) for norovirus genogroup GI, one (1%) for norovirus genogroup GII and another (1%) for rotavirus. Two washing machine samples contained more than one virus. Typical pathogenic E. coli were detected in 3 out of 104 (3%) samples and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in 11 (11%) of samples. Levels of indicator E. coli were highly variable and the presence of E. coli was not associated with the presence of human enteric viruses in greywater. There was also little correlation between reported gastrointestinal illness in households and detection of pathogens in greywater.

VOL 10; NUMB 1 (2012)
A community-based approach to promote household water treatment in Rwanda.
Slavea Chankova, Laurel Hatt and Sabine Musange
Treatment of drinking water at the household level is one of the most effective preventive interventions against diarrhea, a leading cause of illness and death among children in developing countries. A pilot project in two districts in Rwanda aimed to increase use of Sûr’Eau, a chlorine solution for drinking water treatment, through a partnership between community-based health insurance schemes and community health workers who promoted and distributed the product. Evaluation of the pilot, drawing on a difference-in-differences design and data from pre- and post-pilot household surveys of 4,780 households, showed that after 18 months of pilot implementation, knowledge and use of the product increased significantly in two pilot districts, but remained unchanged in a control district. The pilot was associated with a 40–42 percentage point increase in ever use, and 8–9 percentage points increase in use of Sûr’Eau at time of the survey (self-reported measures). Our data suggest that exposure to inter-personal communication on Sûr’Eau and hearing about the product at community meetings and health centers were associated with an increase in use.
Characterization of microbial communities distributed in the groundwater pumped from deep tube wells in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Yasuhiro Tanaka, Kei Nishida, Takashi Nakamura, Saroj Kumar Chapagain, Daisuke Inoue, Kazunari Sei, Kazuhiro Mori, Yasushi Sakamoto and Futaba Kazama, 170–180
Although groundwater is a major water supply source in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, it is known that the groundwater has significant microbial contamination exceeding the drinking water quality standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and that this has been implicated in causing a variety of diseases among people living in the valley. However, little is known about the distribution of pathogenic microbes in the groundwater. Here, we analysed the microbial communities of the six water samples from deep tube wells by using the 16S rRNA gene sequences based culture-independent method. The analysis showed that the groundwater has been contaminated with various types of opportunistic microbes in addition to fecal microbes. Particularly, the clonal sequences related to the opportunistic microbes within the genus Acinetobacter were detected in all samples. As many strains of Acinetobacter are known as multi-drug resistant microbes that are currently spreading in the world, we conducted a molecular-based survey for detection of the gene encoding carbapenem-hydrolysing b-lactamase (blaoxa-23-like gene), which is a key enzyme responsible for multi-drug resistance, in the groundwater samples. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primer sets for amplifying blaoxa-23-like gene indicated that two of six groundwater samples contain multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter.
VOL 165; ISSU 6 (2012)
ISSN 1741-7589
• pp.301-312
Drought monitoring for rooftop rainwater-harvesting systems
Peters, E.J.

VOL 14; NUMB 3 (2012)
ISSN 1366-7017
• pp.391-408
Measuring the performance of water service providers in urban India: implications for managing water utilities
Gupta, S.; Kumar, S.; Sarangi, G.K.
• pp.409-429
Cost of providing sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services: an initial assessment of a life-cycle cost approach (LCCA) in rural Andhra Pradesh, India
Reddy, V.R.; Batchelor, C.
• pp.447-469
The process of innovation during transition to a water saving society in China
Xia, C.; Pahl-Wostl, C.
• pp.490-508
Economic valuation of benefits and costs associated with the coordinated development and management of the Zambezi river basin
Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.; Juizo, D.; Beevers, L.; Senn, D.; Casarotto, C.
• pp.509-523
Quality and year-round availability of water delivered by improved water points in rural Tanzania: effects on coverage
Jimenez, A.; de Palencia, F.; Perez-Foguet, A.

VOL 12; NUMB 3 (2012)
ISSN 1606-9749
• pp.281-299
Improvement of separation efficiency and production capacity of a hydrocyclone
Wu, L.; Long, T.; Lu, X.
• pp.309-320
Life cycle cost assessment of a rain water harvesting system for toilet flushing
Ghimire, S.R.; Watkins, D.W.; Li, K.
• pp.329-333
Purification of a coagulant protein from seeds of Moringa concanensis
Sathiyabama, M.
• pp.406-414
Key points in the practical implementation of greywater recycling systems. The Spanish situation in the global context
Cobacho, R.; Martin, M.; Palmero, C.; Cabrera, E.

VOL 66; NUMB 1 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.1-8
Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems
Campisano, A.; Modica, C.
• pp.72-78
Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment
Smith, E.; Bani-Melhem, K.
• pp.79-87
Evaluation of water security: an integrated approach applied in Wuhan urban agglomeration, China
Shao, D.; Yang, F.; Xiao, C.; Tan, X.
• pp.113-121
Utilising integrated urban water management to assess the viability of decentralised water solutions
Burn, S.; Maheepala, S.; Sharma, A.
VOL 165; ISSU 2 (2012)
ISSN 0965-0903
• pp.101-114
Rethinking public participation in infrastructure projects
Ng, S.T.; Li, T.H.Y.; Wong, J.M.W.

Fecal Contamination and Diarrheal Pathogens on Surfaces and in Soils among Tanzanian Households with and without Improved Sanitation
Pickering, A.J.; Julian, T.R.; Marks, S.J.; Mattioli, M.C.; Boehm, A.B.; Schwab, K.J.; Davis, J.

Abstract This paper evaluates the effect of access to improved water sources and sanitation on 41 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries’ economic efficiency and growth. For this reason data envelopment analysis (DEA), bootstrap techniques and probabilistic approaches are used. The empirical results indicate that SSA countries’ economic efficiency is positively influenced by the access of population both on improved water sources and sanitation. Finally, when the provision of access to improved water sources is provided to more than 50% of the population, the positive effect on countries’ economic efficiency is much greater compared with the effect of providing sustainable access to improved sanitation to the same proportion of population.

• SOCIAL SCIENCE AND MEDICINE VOL 75; NUMB 4 (2012) pp.604-611
Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh
Huda, T. M.; Unicomb, L.; Johnston, R. B.; Halder, A. K.; Yushuf Sharker, M. A.; Luby, S. P.
Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a childs anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness.