Tricia’s snippets 2012-07-19

A few links of general interest:

The Water Blog
Does Sanitation as a Human Right = Free Toilets?

Waterlex database – information on the human right to water and sanitation. Search by country

WSP – Scaling up rural sanitation website

WASH in Schools – 2 links

A selection from email alerts

• LANCET -LONDON- VOL 380; NUMB 9836 (2012) pp.27-28
SAFE strategy for blinding trachoma addresses sanitation, the other half of MDG7
Emerson, P.; Kollmann, M.; MacArthur, C.; Bush, S.; Haddad, D.

The potential economic benefits of including people with disabilities in water and sanitation access policies
Noga, J.

VOL 66; NUMB 2 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.299-303
In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea
Palit, A.; Batabyal, P.; Kanungo, S.; Sur, D.

VOL 10; NUMB 2 (2012)
ISSN 1477-8920
• pp.209-220
A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka
Casanova, L.M.; Walters, A.; Naghawatte, A.; Sobsey, M.D.
Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.
• pp.236-243
Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mushi, D.; Byamukama, D.; Kirschner, A.K.T.; Mach, R.L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, A.H.
Sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ROC was assessed for its capacity to predict bacterial faecal pollution in the investigated well water. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a comprehensive picture of the level and characteristics of faecal pollution (such as vegetative Escherichia coli cells, Clostridium perfringens spores and human-associated sorbitol fermenting Bifidobacteria). ROC scoring demonstrated a remarkable ability to predict bacterial faecal pollution levels in the investigated well water (e.g. 87% of E. coli concentration variations were predicted by ROC scoring). Physicochemical characteristics of the wells were not reflected by the ROC scores. Our results indicate that ROC scoring is a useful tool for supporting health-related well water management in urban and suburban areas of tropical, developing countries. The outcome of this study is discussed in the context of previously published results, and future directions are suggested.
• pp.271-277
Traditional copper water storage vessels and sub-lethal injury of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Vibrio cholerae
Sharan, R.; Chhibber, S.; Reed, R.H.
Recent studies on Escherichia coli have demonstrated sub-lethal injury–sensitivity to oxygen and selective agents prior to irreversible inactivation when kept in water in a brass vessel. The present study was carried out to investigate whether equivalent responses occur in copper vessels using the pathogens Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial suspensions were stored in water in a traditional copper vessel for up to 24 h at 30 °C. Samples were withdrawn and plated on selective and non-selective media, then incubated under (a) aerobic conditions and (b) conditions where reactive oxygen species were neutralized to enumerate injured bacteria. Short-term incubation in water kept in a copper vessel caused a greater decrease in counts for both pathogens on selective media, compared to non-selective media with greater differences between aerobic and reactive oxygen species-neutralized counts using selective media compared to non-selective nutrient agar. These findings have practical implications for the short-term storage of water samples in copper storage vessel as the possibility of bacterial injury is high, hence enumeration under conventional aerobic conditions may not be sufficient to give a count of all viable bacteria.
• pp.295-310
Drinking water standards in South American countries: convergences and divergences
Pinto, V.G.; Heller, L.; Bastos, R.K.X.
In this paper we present a comparative assessment of drinking-water standards from almost all South American countries, using the USA and the Canadian standards and the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines as references. Similarities and discrepancies between standards/guidelines were identified through descriptive analyses and, in the case of chemical standards, clustering techniques. In general, one or another of the four consecutive editions of the WHO Guidelines were shown to be quite influential in setting drinking-water standards in the region, but not so much the USA and the Canadian standards. Considerable discrepancies between South American drinking-water standards were found, mainly with respect to chemical substances. Questions are raised about their scientific basis and/or the practicalities for their enforcement. In conclusion, the paper highlights that many drinking-water regulations in South America need updating, taking on the approach of health-based targets in setting these standards, as well as that of a broader risk-based preventive management in the entire supply system to assure water safety.

VOL 61; NUMB 4 (2012)
ISSN 1606-9935
• pp.201-209
Comparative treatment performance and hydraulic characteristics of pumice and sand biofilters for point-of-use water treatment
Ghebremichael, K.; Wasala, L.D.; Kennedy, M.; Graham, N.J.D.
• pp.253-260
Study on the technology of vortex coagulation and its application in water plant of DongFeng motor corporation
Zhengong, T.

From Sanitation Updates:

India’s sanitation emergency – Al Jazeera
The report features rural development minister Jairam Ramesh, the inevitable Bindeshwar Pathak of Sulabh International and UNICEF India’s Suzanne Coates.
WSP – What Does It Take to Scale Up Rural Sanitation?
Posted: 17 Jul 2012

July 25 – Community-based approaches to meeting the basic WASH needs of families affected by HIV
Posted: 16 Jul 2012 06:10 AM PDT

Togo – children design handwashing stations
Posted: 13 Jul 2012 10:48 AM PDT

Philanthropic toilet paper: “Who Gives a Crap” raises money for sanitation
Posted: 12 Jul 2012 02:23 PM PDT

Pakistan – Low Cost Handmade Sanitary Pads! From Design to Production
Invitation for Prequalification for the Role of the GSF Executing Agency (EA) in Burkina Faso
WEDC fact sheet – Menstruation hygiene management for schoolgirls in low-income countries
Posted: 11 Jul 2012

Menstrual hygiene management firmly on the agenda of regional workshops
Posted: 10 Jul 2012 04:59 AM PDT

Measuring WASH and food hygiene practices – post 2015 goals
Posted: 09 Jul 2012 08:17 AM PDT

Bangladesh: government cuts water and sanitation budget by US$ 121 million
How Mobile Games Can Help Improve Sanitation
Posted: 06 Jul 2012

From WSP  – Scaling up rural sanitation