Tricia’s snippets 2012-10-04

From Sanitation Updates:

Re-inventing toilet talk in India with cricket and Bollywood
Posted: 03 Oct 2012 05:43 AM PDT

USA: sanitation workers campaign against Mitt Romney
Posted: 02 Oct 2012 05:59 AM PDT 

Gates Foundation announces new round of grants for on-site sanitation
“Poo-free” films win Golden Poo Awards 2012
Does external funding for WASH in Schools undermine national and local commitment? Join the debate
Posted: 01 Oct 2012  

Golden Poo Award Finalist – Bum Bay
The business of the honey-suckers in Bengaluru (India) – new IRC publication
Global Handwashing Day celebrates 5th anniversary on 15 October
Posted: 27 Sep 2012

African Sanitation Think Tank to be launched at high level meeting
Posted: 26 Sep 2012 07:24 AM PDT

Videos and more from the vibrant Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) meeting during Stockholm World Water week
The JMP Post-2015 indicators on WASH in schools are a step in the right direction
Posted: 25 Sep 2012

Making sanitation subsidies effective: an IRC summer debate
Posted: 20 Sep 2012 03:04 AM PDT

A few interesting ‘bits and pieces’:

SF. Bloomfield; R. Stanwell Smith; GA. Rook (2012)
The Hygiene Hypothesis and its implications for home hygiene, lifestyle and public health
International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH)

SF Bloomfield; M Exner; KJ Nath; C Signorelli; EA Scott (rev. 2012)
The chain of infection transmission in the home and everyday life settings, and the role of hygiene in reducing the risk of infection (Note: this is an update of the 2002 IFH review “The Infection Potential in the domestic setting and the role of hygiene”)
International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH)

Roesner, L. et al (2006)
Long-term effects of landscape irrigation using household graywater – literature review and synthesis
Alexandria, VA & Washington, DC: Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) & Soap and Detergent Association (SDA)

28 September 2012: The European Court of Auditors (ECA) has found that the EU “could and should do better” in development assistance in the field of water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa.

The ECA found that out of 23 projects in six African countries, EU water and sanitation projects increased access to drinking water and sanitation, but did not achieve the fully desired results or meet the needs of recipients. The audit found that the projects were technically sustainable, using easily replaceable technology made from local materials, but that the projects failed in the medium and long-term when non-tariff revenue stopped due to weak operator capacity.
The ECA report, “EU Development Assistance for Drinking Water Supply and Basic Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Countries,” said the European Commission could better at implementing existing procedures to maximize benefits. The report introduces EU policy for financial assistance to the water and sanitation sector, outlines the audit scope and approach, discusses observations from the 23 projects, and presents conclusions and recommendations.
The audit assessed projects in Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria and Tanzania. [EU Press Release] [Publication: EU Development Assistance for Drinking Water Supply and Basic Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Countries

Water, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages Pages 510-758
(open access journal)

Eduardo Leite Souza and Enedir Ghisi
Article: Potable Water Savings by Using Rainwater for Non-Potable Uses in Houses
Water 2012, 4(3), 607-628; doi:10.3390/w4030607
Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater as well as the sizing of rainwater tanks in houses in some cities in the world. Daily rainfall data for thirteen cities located in different countries were used. Different catchment areas, number of residents, potable and rainwater demands were considered in order to assess their impact on the potential for potable water savings and sizing of rainwater tanks. The analysis was performed using the Netuno computer program. The results showed that the greatest potential for potable water savings is obtained in cities where there is constant rainfall, which does not always mean high annual average rainfall. Cities with well-defined periods of drought require larger tank capacities. Overall, it was observed that all parameters (catchment area, number of residents, potable and rainwater demands, and rainfall) influence the sizing of the tank for rainwater storage.
Keywords: potable water savings; rainwater tank sizing; houses; computer simulations

Tiemen A. Nanninga, Iemke Bisschops, Eduardo López, José Luis Martínez-Ruiz, Daniel Murillo, Laura Essl and Markus Starkl
Article: Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation
Water 2012, 4(3), 739-758; doi:10.3390/w4030739
Abstract: Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands), and (vermi-)composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy) were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is key for successful implementation.

Keywords: participatory planning; resource recovery; solid waste; wastewater; water supply; decentralized technologies
A selection from email alerts:
• ADVANCED MATERIALS RESEARCH : Technology of architecture and structure; Sustainable development of urban environment and building materials VOL 374; PART 2 (2012) pp.754-758
Research on the Water and Energy Consumption of Vacuflush Sanitation System in Building
Xiong, J.Q.; Fang, L.L.; Guo, P.; Wang, X.C.C.

Water supply and sanitation in rural areas of developing countries. Current situation and future challenges
Jimenez, A.; Marin, G.; Perez-Foguet, A.

Impact of a school-based hygiene promotion and sanitation intervention on pupil hand contamination in western Kenya: A cluster randomized trial
Greene, L.E.; Freeman, M.C.; Akoko, D.; Saboori, S.; Moe, C.; Rheingans, R.

Winners deliver safe water and sanitation solutions in the developing world

Environment and Behavior published online 10 July 2012
DOI: 10.1177/0013916512447799
Housing Arrays Following Disasters: Social Vulnerability Considerations in Designing Transitional Communities
Arnold R. Spokane, Yoko Mori & Frank Martinez
Displacement and dislocation from homes disrupt fundamental social processes necessary for optimal community functioning. Neighborhood and community social capital, collective efficacy and place attachment are social processes that may be compromised following disaster, conflict, and upheaval. A collaborative approach to the preplanning, design, and creation of temporary and transitional communities following large-scale events is discussed. When architects, planners, and behavioral and health scientists collaborate, preexisting neighborhood social processes can be preserved or even strengthened and can facilitate resilient recovery among vulnerable groups (e.g., elders, children and their care providers, the poor, and underserved minorities). Such a cross-disciplinary, eco-developmental approach should result in more healthful, sustainable, and culturally appropriate individual and community level outcomes for vulnerable subgroups. Observations from housing accommodations following Hurricane Katrina are used to inform future efforts to rebuild neighborhoods following disasters.

VOL 66; NUMB 7 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.1527-1533
Impact of roof surface runoff on urban water quality
Egodawatta, P.; Miguntanna, N.S.; Goonetilleke, A.
The pollutant impacts of urban stormwater runoff on receiving waters are well documented in research literature. However, it is road surfaces that are commonly identified as the significant pollutant source. This paper presents the outcomes of an extensive program of research into the role of roof surfaces in urban water quality with particular focus on solids, nutrients and organic carbon. The outcomes confirmed that roof surfaces play an important role in influencing the pollutant characteristics of urban stormwater runoff. Pollutant build-up and wash-off characteristics for roads and roof surfaces were found to be appreciably different. The pollutant wash-off characteristics exhibited by roof surfaces show that it influences the first flush phenomenon more significantly than road surfaces. In most urban catchments, as roof surfaces constitute a higher fraction of impervious area compared with road surfaces, it is important that the pollutant generation role of roof surfaces is specifically taken into consideration in stormwater quality mitigation strategies.

VOL 165; ISSU 9 (2012)
ISSN 1741-7589

• pp.461-472
Stormwater detention basin for improving road-runoff quality
Pezzaniti, D.; Beecham, S.; Kandasamy, J.
Both wet and dry detention basins are commonly used for the treatment of road runoff. The basin investigated in this study was located on the eastern side of the southern expressway in Adelaide, Australia. Event mean pollutant concentrations (EMCs) and total pollutant loads were determined for the basin inflows and outflows. The water quality parameters tested included pH, conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids (TDS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, total hydrocarbons, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and nickel. Six critical events were sampled in this manner during the course of the investigation. Total pollutant loads passing through as basin inflow were determined over the six monitored events. Comparison of basin inflow and outflow quality demonstrated that the average load reductions varied from as little as 18% for TDS up to 77% for total phosphorous and lead. While copper concentrations at the basin inflow were detected in four out of the six events, no detectable concentrations were found in the outflows. The average reductions for lead and zinc were more than 50% on more than 80% of occasions.

VOL 12; NUMB 5 (2012)
ISSN 1606-9749

• pp.556-562
Mineral water: a microbiological approach
Falcone-Dias, M.F.; Emerick, G.L.; Farache-Filho, A.
The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water of various domestic brands sold in Brazil was investigated, with particular focus on the heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Neither total coliforms nor Escherichia coli were found in any 1.5 L bottle samples. Total coliforms were found in 2.9 of the small bottles, while in 20 L bottles the presence of total coliforms and E. coli was demonstrated in 15.5 and 2.4 of samples, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 4.3, 4.5 and 9.5 of small, 1.5 and 20 L bottles, respectively. In 36.4 of the samples of 1.5 L bottles, the HPC was above 500 cfu/mL. This percentage of samples with an HPC above 500 cfu/mL increased to 52.0 and 61.9 in small and 20 L bottles, respectively. Higher contamination by total coliforms, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and HPCs occurred in 20 L bottles. In conclusion, several samples in this study were outside the international quality standard for mineral water and the large number of samples with high HPCs shows that more work must be done on the use of HPC in mineral water and the damaging effects that these microorganisms may cause to humans. The bottled mineral water was confirmed as a particularly important public health problem, due to the poor microbiological quality of the products that are marketed.
• pp.658-665
Application of a simple arsenic removal filter in a rural area of Bangladesh
Hasan, M.M.; Shafiquzzaman, M.; Nakajima, J.; Bari, Q.H.
A simple and low-cost household-based arsenic (As) removal filter (ARF) was tested under actual field conditions in a rural area of Bangladesh. The ARF consisted of a ceramic filter made of clay soil and rice bran collected on-site, iron netting and iron bacterial sludge liquor. Fifteen ARFs (14 shallow and one deep tubewells) were installed in three villages (five in each area) in the Khulna region (southwestern region of Bangladesh), and their performance was evaluated. More than 60 of ARFs produced effluent with As 50 g/L (Bangladesh standard level). The effects of Fe and P on As removal were the same as in laboratory experiments. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) analysis showed the adsorption of primarily As(V), with lesser amounts of As(III). Continuous As removal performance was observed over 1 year of ARF use. By introducing a double ARF system, the As removal was significantly enhanced for the region with high As contamination levels. The ARF manufacturing cost was estimated to be US45, which is low and affordable to the rural households of Bangladesh. The ARF, made of locally available materials, had a low cost and minimal maintenance and showed high user acceptance, satisfaction and sustained use. 
VOL 66; NUMB 8 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.1812-1820
Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark
Zhou, Q.; Halsnaes, K.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.
Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.