Tricia’s snippets 2012-11-29

From Sanitation Updates:

Sewer Diving in Mexico City, Mumbai and Delhi
Publication of the Study on Fecal Sludge Management in Africa and Asia
Posted: 28 Nov 2012

Financing sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa
New job at WSSCC: Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Officer P4
Struggles and Victories: Waste Pickers on the Frontline
Posted: 27 Nov 2012

Renewed research call for faecal sludge secondary treatment options in Bangladesh
Posted: 25 Nov 2012 12:50 PM PST

Toilets for health
Posted: 21 Nov 2012 09:23 AM PST

 Open defecation in white suburbia: WaterAid’s World Toilet Day video
Posted: 19 Nov 2012

Conference explores faecal sludge management, a key link to up-scaling sanitation
Posted: 16 Nov 2012 07:45 AM PST

The Public Toilet – interactive sculpture launch on World Toilet Day
Posted: 14 Nov 2012

A selection from email alerts:

VOL 46; NUMB 19 (2012)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.6319-6328
Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: Characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms
Williams, J. B.; Clarkson, C.; Mant, C.; Drinkwater, A.; May, E.
Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change.

VOL 66; NUMB 9 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.1893-1899
Seasonally loaded waste stabilisation ponds: a novel application for intermittent discharge
Whalley, C.P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C.J.; Salter, A.M.

VOL 12; NUMB 6 (2012)
ISSN 1606-9749
• pp.737-746
Sustainable water resources management in the Long Bien district of Hanoi, Vietnam
Stefan, C.; Frohlich, T.; Fuchs, L.; Junghanns, R.; Phan, H.M.; Tran, V.N.; Werner, P.
• pp.783-790
Riverbank filtration in India – using ecosystem services to safeguard human health
Sandhu, C.; Grischek, T.
• pp.799-809
The water governance challenge: the discrepancy between what is and what should be
Ravnborg, H.M.; Jensen, K.M.
• pp.818-828
A construction of water quality index considering physicochemical properties for drinking purposes in a rural settlement: a case study of Gajraula region, Ganga River Basin (North India)
Singh, B.; Chauhan, J.S.; Mohan, A.
• pp.854-861
The sustainability performance of the water and sanitation services in Santiago de Chile
Simon, L.M.; Lehn, H.
• pp.918-925
Development of automatic coagulant dosage control technology for rapid change of raw water quality parameters
Sangu, Y.; Yokoi, H.; Tadokoro, H.; Tachi, T.
• pp.926-936
Water reuse in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – status, prospects and research needs
Drewes, J.E.; Garduno, C.P.R.; Amy, G.L.
• pp.937-942
Effectiveness of reconstruction of water supply system from the economic viewpoint and affecting factors – case study of a city
Nakazono, H.; Dodo, O.; Kataishi, K.
Title: Assessment on the Approaches Used for Water and Sanitation Programs in Southern Ethiopia
by Baye, Sileshi; Kloos, Helmut; Mulat, Worku; Assayie, Aymere; Gullis, Gabriel; Kumie, Abera; Yirsaw, Biruck
Water Resources Management [Water Resour. Manage.]. Vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 4295-4309. Dec 2012.
Water supply and sanitation systems using the supply-driven approach have not met the demands of consumers. Systems are also facing problems of underuse, poor maintenance and inadequate cost recovery. This study reports about approaches used by water and sanitation program implementers in Shebedino District, a rural area in Ethiopia. A community-based study was conducted using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and a structured questionnaire. A total of 635 households were studied. The supplier-induced approach was found to be the main approach used by program implementers. The involvement of beneficiary communities at different stages of the projects was limited. Water and sanitation services were subsidized by implementing agencies but households were dissatisfied with the outcomes. More than 88 % of respondents stated that they did not have any relevant skills or expertise to enable them to maintain the facilities. Logistic regression analysis results showed that approaches used by sanitation program implementers were statistically associated with sex of household heads (2.144, AOR 95 % Cl: 1.520-3.025), family size (1.554, AOR 95 % CI: 1.100-2.196), subsidy (1.699, AOR 95 % CI: 0.390-0.921) and occupation (15.196, AOR 95 % CI: 1.946-118.660). However, no statistical significant association was found among age, sex, marital status, income, family size, education and occupation and approaches used by water program implementers. Generally, the unsatisfactory results of the supplier-induced approach (80.8 % for water and 33.1 % for sanitation facilities) point out the need for program implementers to give more attention to the demands and preferences of users.

Title: Groundwater Contaminated by Nitrates–A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria
by Ayinla, LT; James, A
Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A. Vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 904-908. Jul 2012.
Nitrate is one of the problematic and wide spread contaminations. Indiscriminate disposition of human and animal wastes in Nigeria especially in urban region, and lack of proper environmental sanitation geared the need for the monitoring of groundwater contamination. This research work monitored the concentration of nitrate and nitrate-nitrogen in portable water from wells in Odo Ado, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, and examined the relationship between this concentration and the well depth as well as its nature (ringing). The results showed that out of 20 water wells sampled, 50% of samples contain high level of nitrate with the highest having concentration of 140 mg/L and least 49 mg/L while the remaining has acceptable concentration ranging between 3.5 mg/L and 35 mg/L with most ringed wells. The mean concentration of nitrates is 48.06 mg/L and the nitrate-nitrogen is 10.85 mg/L. The statistical correlation between the concentrations and depth showed that there is a significant difference between their means at 95% confidence using T-test. Out of ringed wells, five have high concentration and eight have low concentrations while two of the wells (not ringed) fall below the acceptable limit (EPA) which indicates that there are other factors such as closeness to the point source and soil texture which were not considered in this work.

Title: Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater of Abuja, Nigeria
by Dan-Hassan, M A; Olasehinde, P I; Amadi, A N; Yisa, J; Jacob, J O
International Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 4, no. 3, 104 p. Jun 2012.
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many households, private and government establishments depends solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is rather delicate because of its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate when compared to surface water. The purpose of this paper is to present the occurrence of nitrate in groundwater of Abuja and discuss the implication and sources of the nitrate. High nitrate level in drinking water leads to infant methaemoglobinaemia (blue-baby syndrome), gastric cancer, metabolic disorder and livestock poisoning. A simplified map of nitrate occurrences in Abuja indicates that some areas have nitrate concentration above the WHO and NSDWQ guide limit of 50 mg/l and it is dominant in the rainy season than dry season. The number of people drinking water with nitrate concentration above the permissible level cannot be quantified presently. The sources of nitrate in the groundwater were attributed to bedrock dissolution in the course of groundwater migration and more importantly anthropogenic activities such as on-site sanitation, waste dumpsites and agricultural chemicals. Water treatment by bio-denitrification and nitrate pollution control programs should be introduced at local, state and federal levels in order to educate people on the need to protect groundwater from nitrate pollution caused by agricultural activity and indiscriminate disposal of wastes.

Title: Efficiency evaluation of municipal solid waste management utilities in the urban cities of the state of Madhya Pradesh, India, using stochastic frontier analysis
by Vishwakarma, Amit; Kulshrestha, Mukul; Kulshreshtha, Mudit
Benchmarking: An International Journal. Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 340-357. 2012.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evolve a framework for assessing the efficiencies of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services. Design/methodology/approach – Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), a deterministic parametric frontier technique, has been employed for benchmarking of the MSWM services across municipalities in 22 cities in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Findings – This paper reviews the solid waste management status and applies SFA to evaluate the relative performances of the services in terms of seven models, of which two models were found significant and acceptable based on the null hypothesis, significance of elasticity of variables, and an absence of data heteroskedasticity. The paper discusses the results in the context of various indicators, and finds that a large number of MSWM municipalities exhibit relative inefficiencies, implying that most municipalities can achieve higher levels of outputs by deploying fewer resources, thereby improving performances without necessarily increasing municipal spendings. Social implications – The work suggests some of the changes at the policy level that would affect the way in which solid waste is managed currently in India, and hence the work has social implications whereby the lives of a billion people will be improved through improved solid waste management services. Originality/value – To the best of the author’s information, advanced benchmarking techniques such as SFA have seldom been applied for evolving the efficiencies of solid waste management municipalities, primarily because the sanitation services are yet to take the shape of an industry in the developing world. Lack of availability of data and non-transparent functions of these services prevent further exploration into estimating the inefficiencies of these service utilities. The paper will be of use to policy makers, solid waste managers, administrators, and sector regulators.

Title: Effects of hygiene and sanitation interventions on reducing diarrhoea prevalence among children in resource constrained communities: case study of Turkana district, Kenya.

by Kariuki, J G; Magambo, K J; Njeruh, M F; Muchiri, E M; Nzioka, S M; Kariuki, S
Journal of community health, December 2012, 37(6):1178-1184
Worldwide, lack of access to safe drinking water together with inadequate sanitation and hygiene is an overwhelming contributor to approximately 4 billion cases of illness annually. This study was set out to understand the effects of hygiene and sanitation interventions on targeted health outcomes including diarrhoeal prevalence in children’s of Turkana District, Kenya. The interventions undertaken included capacity building and empowerment approach to trigger communities to demand hygiene and sanitation facilities. Three hundred mothers were randomly sampled in a baseline survey carried out in 2007 and in a post-intervention survey carried out in 2008 (a repeat cross-sectional study design). Specimens were collected for microbiological tests of key diarrhoea related pathogens. Overall, Faecal coliform counts per 100 ml sample had significant variations between 2007 and 2008; in Kakuma, reduced from 88 to 30.2 colony units (P = 0.005), Lodwar Central where the number reduced from 91 to 17.3 units (P = 0.003), and in Lokichogio Division, the number reduced from 63.8 to 23.6 units (P = 0.006). From the 230 stool samples examined, the proportion of children from whom infectious pathogens of Proteus spp. was isolated reduced from 16 to 7 % while Escherichia coli reduced from 54 to 41 %. Overall, prevalence of diarrhoea related microbes in children aged <5 years reduced from 91.3 % in 2007 to 78.3 % after intervention (2008). It is notable that sanitation and hygiene promotion leads to significant reduction of diarrhoea prevalence in children aged <5 years. Its application should therefore be up-scaled in resource constrained areas.

Title: Changing Mother’s Hygiene and Sanitation Practices in Resource Constrained Communities: Case Study of Turkana District, Kenya.
by Kariuki, J G; Magambo, K J; Njeruh, M F; Muchiri, E M; Nzioka, S M; Kariuki, S
Journal of community health, December 2012, 37(6):1185-1191
Lack of adequate sanitation, hygiene and safe portable water are serious global health problems that contribute to deaths of many children under the age of 5 years annually, mainly due to diarrhoeal diseases. This study was set out to determine the extent to which sanitation and hygiene promotion influenced mothers’ and children’s health in Turkana District; one of the arid Northern frontier Districts of Kenya. A repeat cross-sectional study design with multi-stage sampling method was used. A total of 300 mothers were randomly sampled for interviews in a baseline survey carried out in 2007 and in a post-intervention survey carried out in 2008. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS for frequencies, cross tabulations and regression amongst other tests. Significant improvements were observed in hand washing practice, presence of hand washing soap at household and refuse pit ownership. In Kakuma Division the proportion of those who washed hands regularly increased from 48.8 to 91.3 % (?(2) = 7.28, P = 0.122), in Lodwar Central, those who wash hands regularly increased from 85.5 to 89.9 % (?² = 10.85, P = 0.028) while in Lokichogio, the proportions increased from 77.5 to 93.8 % (?² = 15.56, P = 0.004). For hand washing soap at household, there was an increase in proportion of those who wash hands with soap from 65 to 78 % (?² = 3.87, P = 0.049) within the group with no formal education. There was significant reduction of diarrhoea prevalence in children aged less than 5 years. Sanitation and hygiene promotion based on community participatory approaches can lead to significant reduction of diarrhoea in children.

Title: Hygiene and sanitation practices amongst residents of three long-term refugee camps in Thailand, Ethiopia and Kenya.
by Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Zeleke, Lemlem; Emukule, Haron; Khay, Hla; Parker, Julian; Peprah, Dorothy
Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH, September 2012, 17(9):1133-1141
To further the understanding of sanitation and hygiene in long-term camp populations. Data were collected by structured observation of handwashing (126 households), a questionnaire on sanitation, hygiene and household characteristics (1089 households) and discussions with mothers. Random walk algorithms were used to select households for observation and survey. Respondents for qualitative methods were a convenience sample. Across all key handwash occasions [excluding events with no handwash (n=275)], soap was used for 30% of handwashes. After latrine use, both hands were washed with soap on 20% of occasions observed. Availability of soap in households differed across sites and mirrored the extent to which it was distributed free of charge. Qualitative data suggested lack of free soap as a barrier to ‘safe’ handwashing. Laundry was the priority for soap. In Ethiopia and Kenya, open defecation was practised by a significant minority and was more prevalent amongst households of rural origin. In Ethiopia, open defecation was significantly more prevalent amongst women. Despite continuing hygiene education, rates of ‘safe’ handwashing are sub-optimal. Soap scarcity in some households and the prioritisation of laundry are barriers to safe practice. Heterogeneity with respect to education and place of origin may need to be taken into account in the design of improved interventions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Title: Impact of a school-based hygiene promotion and sanitation intervention on pupil hand contamination in Western Kenya: a cluster randomized trial.
by Greene, Leslie E; Freeman, Matthew C; Akoko, Daniel; Saboori, Shadi; Moe, Christine; Rheingans, Richard
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, September 2012, 87(3):385-393
Handwashing with soap effectively reduces exposure to diarrhea-causing pathogens. Interventions to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in schools within low-income countries have gained increased attention; however, their impact on schoolchildren’s exposure to fecal pathogens has not been established. Our trial examined whether a school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention reduced Escherichia coli contamination on pupils’ hands in western Kenya. A hygiene promotion and water treatment intervention did not reduce risk of E. coli presence (relative risk [RR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54-1.56); the addition of new latrines to intervention schools significantly increased risk among girls (RR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.29-5.34), with a non-significant increase among boys (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.74-2.49). Efforts to increase usage of school latrines by constructing new facilities may pose a risk to children in the absence of sufficient hygiene behavior change, daily provision of soap and water, and anal cleansing materials.

Title: Cholera: something old, something new.
by Sigman, Michael; Luchette, Fred A
Surgical infections, August 2012, 13(4):216-222
In the aftermath of a devastating earthquake in early 2011, Haiti fell victim to an outbreak of cholera that claimed thousands of lives and affected populations in nearby Dominican Republic, Venezuela, and even the United States. This was the first time cholera had been reported in Haiti in more than 100 years. The sudden appearance of cholera, a pathogen with no known non-human host, raised the question of how it was introduced to an island that has long been spared this disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the history of cholera, its pathophysiology and virulence factors, and current recommendations for treatment. Articles published in the past 10 years were identified by a search of the medical literature using PUBMED and reviewed. Bibliographies of each article also were reviewed for additional pertinent articles. The recent epidemic was caused by a strain that has been responsible for disease in South Asia since 1961, the seventh and most recent strain identified since 1900. It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Once infected, the patient develops a rapidly dehydrating diarrheal illness caused by the cholera toxin, which activates cytoplasmic adenylate cyclase of the intestinal epithelial cells by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of the stimulatory G protein. The high cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, causing a dramatic efflux of ions and water from infected enterocytes and leading to watery diarrhea. The first line of therapy is oral hydration with intravenous fluids; antibiotics are reserved for patients with severe dehydration. Spread of cholera is preventable with simple modifications of hygiene and water preparation. Cholera has re-emerged as a major infectious disease in the recent past, with a global increase in its incidence. Vaccination should be considered as an adjunct for controlling the epidemics and also for volunteer health care workers who provide services to underdeveloped nations. During an epidemic such as occurred in Haiti, use of antibiotics should be considered for all hospitalized patients. These endeavors should proceed in concert with much-needed improvements in sanitation and accessibility of potable water.

Title: Hazards faced by informal recyclers in the squatter communities of Asunción, Paraguay.
by Cunningham, Rad N; Simpson, Christopher D; Keifer, Matthew C
International journal of occupational and environmental health, July 2012, 18(3):181-187
Informal recycling is widespread in developing countries and involves the collection, sorting, and selling of recyclable materials. Workers are exposed to hazards including the risk of cuts and musculoskeletal injury, infection, exposure to medical waste, and respiratory conditions like bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis and often use insufficient personal protective equipment. Assess the occupational and environmental health hazards faced by informal recyclers working at a landfill in Asunción, Paraguay. We surveyed 102 informal recyclers and 12 formal recyclers about occupational health, workplace safety, general health, and household economics. Personal air samples were used to assess respirable dust and nobel metal exposure on 18 workers. Exposures to hazards such as syringes, medical waste, and broken glass as well as risk factors such as eating food found in the trash, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), and inadequate sanitation were frequent among informal recyclers. Minors under 18 years of age constituted 13% of the workforce and experienced equal or greater exposure to these hazards. Formal recyclers had better access to water, sanitation, PPE, and experienced fewer cuts, injuries, and illnesses than formal recyclers. Informal recyclers were exposed to respirable dust that were considerably higher than they would have been exposed to at home or doing other work in their neighborhood. Better regulation of sharps and medical waste and the provision of adequate sanitation and personal protective equipment would address the most pressing occupational health issues in this high risk group.

Evaluation of non-user benefits towards improvement of water and sanitation services in informal settlements
Kobel, D.; Del Mistro, R.