Tricia’s snippets 2012-12-13

From Sanitation Updates:

Q&A: Making Toilets Fashionable
Posted: 11 Dec 2012 11:51 AM PST

Webinar: WASH in Schools, 13 December 2012
Posted: 07 Dec 2012 04:42 AM PST

WASHing with Sesame Street Webinar, December 11
WEDC & WaterAid – Equity and Inclusion in WASH
Posted: 04 Dec 2012

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Fecal Sludge Management
Posted: 30 Nov 2012 07:30 AM PST

Sanitation Hackathon Field Visits
Posted: 29 November 2012


Sanitation Hackathon
Tapping innovation in sanitation

A new World Bank Policy Research Working Paper from WSP, Promoting Handwashing Behavior in Peru: The Effect of Large-Scale Mass-Media and Community Level Interventions, presents the key findings from the rigorous, large-scale impact evaluation

New RWSN publication:
You can download Procurement and Contract Management of Drilled Well Construction A Guide for Supervisors and Project Managers 

From IRC WASH Library:
Chowdhry, S. and Kone, D., 2012. Business analysis of fecal sludge management : emptying and transportation services in Africa and Asia. Seattle, WA, USA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

A selection from email alerts:

• CITIES -GUILDFORD- : Special Section: Analysis and Planning of Urban Settlements: The Role of Accessibility VOL 30; (2013) pp.204-211
Comparing urban sanitation and solid waste management in East African metropolises: The role of civil society organizations
Tukahirwa, J. T.; Mol, A. P. J.; Oosterveer, P.

Pressure of Urbanisation and a Sustainable Sanitation Infrastructure: Experiences with a Research-Driven Planning Method in Northern Namibia
Deffner, J.; Kluge, T.; Muller, K.

Review: Markers of Potability, Sanitation Basic and Costs of Treatment and Microbiological Monitoring of Water for Human Consumption in Brazil
Emiliano, J. o.; Andre, M. C.
In this study we discuss the microbiological markers used to set up the water potability for human consumption, sanitation basics and costs of treatment and microbiological monitoring of water for human consumption in Brazil. The microbiological quality of water is closely associated with the concentration of chlorine. There is discussion of the exclusive adoption of the current microbiological markers used to attest the potability of the water for consumption and the necessity or not of adding new microbiological markers. The literature demonstrates some cases where monitoring showed failures to establish the safety of the water consumed and the evidence presented in this article cannot be ignored. The presence of contaminating microorganisms in drinking water and the high cost of waterborne diseases are closely linked with basic sanitation. It mainly affects developing countries, because of limited resources and sanitation basics. Each Brazilian spends US$ 0.25 per month intended to be subjected to evaluation and microbiological monitoring for quality control; it does not include analysis for fungi and H. pylori. 39 % of Brazilian families spend 8.00 % of income to pay the tariff of water and sewage. This suggests an expansion of the microbiological markers used to establish the potability of water

VOL 14; NUMB 6 (2012)
ISSN 1366-7017
• pp.903-914
Return of drinking water supply in Paris to public control
Barraque, B.
• pp.937-956
Free water for all the world’s poor? A review of the strategy of South Africa’s free basic water policy
Smith, J.
• pp.977-990
Safe water, household income and health challenges in Ugandan homes that harvest rainwater
Baguma, D.; Hashim, J.H.; Aljunid, S.M.; Hauser, M.; Jung, H.; Loiskandl, W.

VOL 216; NUMB 1 (2013)
ISSN 1438-4639
• pp.50-55
Low levels of arsenic in drinking water and type 2 diabetes in Middle Banat region, Serbia
Jovanovic, D.; Rasic-Milutinovic, Z.; Paunovic, K.; Jakovljevic, B.; Plavsic, S.; Milosevic, J.
Arsenic in drinking water presents a serious public health problem in Serbia, but its relationship with diabetes has not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between exposure to arsenic in drinking water and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Middle Banat region, Serbia. This cross-sectional study comprised two populations. Exposed population in Middle Banat region consumes drinking water with arsenic (mean=56mg/L); unexposed population from six regions in Central Serbia consumes arsenic below detection limit (2mg/L). Newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were obtained from the National Registry of Diabetes in 2008. The Registry included age, gender, family history of diabetes, presence of overweight, central obesity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, the number of cases of diabetes reported in years 2006, 2007 and 2009 was used to calculate standardized incidence rates for both populations. Two populations were comparable by age, family history of diabetes and prevalence of overweight persons. Unexposed population was more likely to have central obesity, and high total cholesterol and triglycerides. Standardized incidence rates of type 2 diabetes were higher in exposed population. Odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for the exposed population, both men and women, in the period from 2006 to 2009, when compared with the unexposed population. The population from Middle Banat region, consuming drinking water with low levels of arsenic, was at higher risk for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in comparison to the unexposed population in Central Serbia.
• pp.88-90
Challenges in setting up a potable water supply system in a United Nations peacekeeping mission: The South Sudan experience
Hazra, A.
Problem: A United Nations peacekeeping contingent was deployed in the conflict affected areas of South Sudan with inadequate environmental sanitation, lack of clean drinking water and a heightened risk of water-borne diseases. In the immediate post-deployment phase, the contingent-owned water purification system was pressed into service. However, laboratory analyses of processed water revealed its unsuitability for human consumption. Approach: A systematic, sanitary survey was conducted to identify the shortcomings in the water supply system’s ability to provide potable water. Under field conditions, the ‘H2S method’ was used to detect faecal contamination of drinking water. Local setting: The raw water from the only available source, the White Nile River, was highly turbid and contaminated by intestinal and other pathogens due to an unprotected watershed. Water sterilizing powder was not readily available in the local area to replenish the existing stocks that had deteriorated during the long transit period from the troop contributing country. The water pipelines that had been laid along the ground, under water-logged conditions, were prone to microbial recontamination due to leakages in the network. Relevant changes: The critical evaluation of the water supply system and necessary modifications in the purification process, based upon locally available options, yielded safe drinking water. Lessons learnt: . Provision of safe drinking water in the mission area requires an in-depth analysis of prevailing conditions and appropriate planning in the pre-deployment phase. The chemicals for water purification should be procured through UN sources via a ‘letter of assist’ request from the troop contributor.

VOL 66; NUMB 10 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.2131-2137
Engineered ecosystem for on-site wastewater treatment in tropical areas
de Sa Salomao, A.L.; Marques, M.; Severo, R.G.; da Cruz Roque, O.C.
There is a worldwide demand for decentralized wastewater treatment options. An on-site engineered ecosystem (EE) treatment plant was designed with a multistage approach for small wastewater generators in tropical areas. The array of treatment units included a septic tank, a submersed aerated filter, and a secondary decanter followed by three vegetated tanks containing aquatic macrophytes intercalated with one tank of algae. During 11 months of operation with a flow rate of 52 L h1, the system removed on average 93.2 and 92.9 of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reaching final concentrations of 36.3 12.7 and 13.7 4.2 mg L1, respectively. Regarding ammonia-N (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP), the system removed on average 69.8 and 54.5 with final concentrations of 18.8 9.3 and 14.0 2.5 mg L1, respectively. The tanks with algae and macrophytes together contributed to the overall nutrient removal with 33.6 for NH4-N and 26.4 for TP. The final concentrations for all parameters except TP met the discharge threshold limits established by Brazilian and EU legislation. The EE was considered appropriate for the purpose for which it was created. 
VOL 138; NUMB 6 (2012)
ISSN 0733-9496
• pp.671-681
Integrated Planning of Land Use and Water Allocation on a Watershed Scale Considering Social and Water Quality Issues
Ahmadi, A.; Karamouz, M.; Moridi, A.; Han, D.