Tricia’s snippets 2013-01-10

Happy new Year!

A few ‘bits and pieces’:

World Bank Supports Strengthened Social Accountability in Water Services in Kenya

December 2012: The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World Bank and the Kenya Water and Sanitation Services Improvement Project (WASSIP) are working jointly to strength social accountability in water services. The adopted strategy consists in establishing Water Action Groups, and using scorecards and information and communication technologies (ICT), allowing citizens to provide real time feedback. 
The project is a response to the lack of significant community involvement in Kenya’s investment in water production, which affected the protection of consumer’s preferences and the delivery of adequate service standards. The role of the World Bank’s WSP is to help the Kenyan Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) to reach out to the citizens ensuring intermediaries channels of communication.
In order to better incorporate the view of citizens, quarterly focus groups and biannual public hearings are organized via The Water Action Groups, while the scorecards reports on service gaps, such as problems of corruption and bill errors.
The Kenya Water and Sanitation Services improvement Project has benefited from an initial US$150 million loan from the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s Fund for the Poorest, before partnering with the WSP. In the first two years of the pilot project, 400 complaints were registered and 97% were resolved. According to the World Bank, these successful rates can be explained by bringing unresolved issues “up the chain-of-command.”
The  initiative is being scaled-up and is promoting South-South knowledge exchange, since Kenya is now assisting Zambia on how to use citizen monitor tools. However, to continue expanding, new organizations incentives will have to be created to overcome the distrust of some utilities companies and better monitoring system will be needed to speed-up the analysis of citizens’ feedback. [World Bank Press Release]

IFC Announces Partnership to Increase Access to Affordable Sanitation in East Africa

Nairobi, Kenya, December 18, 2012—IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, today announced support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to catalyze the market for improved sanitation and accelerate access to more affordable sanitation solutions for low-income households in East Africa.
The Selling Sanitation initiative, a joint project of IFC and the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, will support regional manufacturing firms to deliver low-cost sanitation products to consumer markets, with a pilot program in Kenya.
This initiative will lower market barriers, attract private investment and spur innovation by helping firms better understand consumer needs at the base of the pyramid. It will provide support to manufacturing firms to design new products, strengthen rural distribution mechanisms, and actively promote sanitation to consumers currently without access. The initiative will work closely with regional government counterparts, including the Kenyan Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, to create the right enabling conditions for the sanitation market.
“There is an urgent need to improve sanitation in Africa to reduce deaths and illnesses associated with poor hygiene. This partnership builds on the opportunity to mobilize private investment for better sanitation services,” said Oumar Seydi, IFC Director for Eastern and Southern Africa. “IFC’s new partnership with the Bill and & Melinda Gates Foundation will help further IFC’s strategy of transforming key markets and increasing access to basic infrastructure.”
Approximately 28 million Kenyans, over two-thirds of the population, lack access to improved sanitation. Nearly 20,000 Kenyans, including more than 17,000 children under the age of five, die every year from diarrheal diseases directly attributed to poor water, sanitation and hygiene. Many Kenyan households use poor quality, but costly latrines with low hygienic standards. Few affordable product and service options exist for low-income households looking to upgrade or build new sanitation facilities.
This initiative is part of IFC’s Sanitation and Safe Water for All program, which has recently published a step-by-step guide for entrepreneurs on how to develop a water treatment and vending business in Kenya. The program builds on the experience from Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program, which has so far provided safe, affordable and modern off-grid lighting to more than four million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. This initiative also leverages the extensive sanitation expertise of the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program.

Water, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2012), Pages Pages 759-1038

Mike Hardin, Martin Wanielista and Manoj Chopra
Article: A Mass Balance Model for Designing Green Roof Systems that Incorporate a Cistern for Re-Use
Water 2012, 4(4), 914-931; doi:10.3390/w4040914

From Sanitation Updates:

Sanitation and Hygiene Policy – Stated Beliefs and Actual Practice: Burera District, Rwanda
Posted: 08 Jan 2013 11:07 AM PST

Uptake of hand washing with soap or soapy water from a large-scale cluster randomized community trial in urban Bangladesh
Posted: 04 Jan 2013 11:36 AM PST

Why Toilets, Not Cell Phones, Are Key To Education Around The World
Posted: 03 Jan 2013 08:42 AM PST

USAID/Afghanistan – Latrine & Sanitation Options Manual
Kenya: Human waste woes in slums
Posted: 28 Dec 2012

BPD Blog – Learning from failure in sanitation
Posted: 27 Dec 2012 07:38 AM PST

Africa: AMCOW gets US$ 2 million Gates grant to build national sanitation capacities
Posted: 24 Dec 2012 02:27 AM PST

36th WEDC International Conference, July 1-5, 2013, Nakuru, Kenya
Renewed research call for low-cost sanitation technologies in Bangladesh [deadline18 Feb 2013]
IFC Announces Partnership to Increase Access to Affordable Sanitation in East Africa
Posted: 21 Dec 2012

Impact of Infectious Diseases on Cognitive Development in Childhood and Beyond: Potential Mitigational Role of Hygiene
Posted: 20 Dec 2012 08:51 AM PST

UNICEF – Community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia
Updates from the Sanitation Marketing Community of Practice
Posted: 19 Dec 2012

WASH in Schools e-debate results feed into key international working groups
Alive & Thrive – Reducing stunting through improved feeding and handwashing
Posted: 17 Dec 2012

 A selection from email alerts:

VOL 66; NUMB 11 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.2284-2290
Effects of ultrasonic pre-treatment on sludge characteristics and anaerobic digestion
Appels, L.; Houtmeyers, S.; Van Mechelen, F.; Degreve, J.; Van Impe, J.; Dewil, R.
• pp.2393-2401
A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaption strategies in urban water management
Fratini, C.F.; Elle, M.; Jensen, M.B.; Mikkelsen, P.S.
• pp.2483-2495
Towards a benchmarking tool for minimizing wastewater utility greenhouse gas footprints
Guo, L.; Porro, J.; Sharma, K.R.; Amerlinck, Y.; Benedetti, L.; Nopens, I.; Shaw, A.; Van Hulle, S.W

VOL 27; NUMB 1 (2013)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.95-115
Urbanisation and Shallow Groundwater: Predicting Changes in Catchment Hydrological Responses
Barron, O. V.; Donn, M. J.; Barr, A. D.
The impact of urbanisation on catchment hydrological response was investigated by using a process-based coupled surface water–groundwater model (MODHMS). The modelling estimated likely changes in river discharge as a result of land-use change in the Southern River catchment in Western Australia, underlined by a highly transmissive aquifer, has permeable soils and a shallow watertable. A significant increase in total annual discharge was predicted as a result of urbanisation area with the runoff coefficient rising from 0.01 to more than 0.40. In contrast with urban areas elsewhere, these changes were mainly due to a shift in the subsurface water balance, leading to significant reduction in evaporative losses from the soil profile and shallow watertable after urbanisation (from nearly 80 % of infiltration to less than 20 %). The infiltration of roof and road runoff and establishment of subsurface drainage adopted in local construction practice leads to higher groundwater recharge rates and subsequently groundwater discharge to the urban drainage network. Urban density and groundwater abstraction for urban irrigation most strongly influence the urbanisation impact on catchment fluxes. The results shows that urban development leads to a production of ‘harvestable’ water; and depending on local needs, this water could be used for public and private water supply or to improve
• pp.199-207
Design of a Pumping Main Considering Pipeline Failure
Swamee, P. K.; Sharma, A. K.
Cost and reliability are two diametrically opposite objectives in a pumping main design as the objective of an uninterrupted supply of water will increase the system cost. In this investigation, a methodology for pumping main design is presented by considering the costs of pumping main and pipeline breakage. Although it has been found that there is no clear-cut optimum point in such a design objective, there is however, a set of non-dominated points called Pareto-optimal front which can be used to optimize pipe diameter. It is hoped that this methodology will be useful to design engineers engaged in the design of pumping mains and will also result in the cost savings to water service providers.
• pp.239-253
Tap Water Costs and Service Sustainability, a Close Relationship
Cabrera, E.; Pardo, M. A.; Cabrera, E.; Arregui, F. J.
Water is currently an essential and strategic resource for society and its importance will rise in the future due to the increasing number of threats. However, water management is not currently up to par taking into consideration this well acknowledged importance. Generally speaking, water use is not efficient and loss figures are often too high. The reasons behind this situation are complex and diverse, however, in principle, they can be divided into four categories: cultural, political, social and economic. Since the latter are of most importance, this paper focuses on water costs from source to tap. The economic analysis presented quantifies the costs of a sustainable urban water service in a structured way. The second part of the paper present a case study in which the economic losses linked to leakage are assessed as a function of how expenses are recovered. The cost of apparent losses could also be assessed in a similar way and will always be higher, since apparent losses (unlike real ones) are present throughout the whole water cycle, thus increasing the unit costs.
• pp.275-291
Residential Water Use: Efficiency, Affordability, and Price Elasticity
Hung, M. F.; Chie, B. T.
In practice, water pricing is the main economic instrument used to discourage the wasteful use of residential water. Owing to considerations of affordability, residential water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This paper proposes a system that supplements the existing price system with a cap-and-trade measure to reconcile conflicts among the goals of residential water use. It forces all people (independent of income) to be faced with reasonable price signals and to use water efficiently. The poor could, however, gain from trade and afford water. By taking advantage of the agent-based model, a simulation of this system applied to Taipei, Taiwan shows that those with lower income per capita are better off under this system even though the equilibrium price of residential water is higher. The simulated average price elasticity of market demand is −0.449.
• pp.309-317
An Econometric Analysis of Residential Water Demand in Cyprus
Polycarpou, A.; Zachariadis, T.
This paper analyses econometrically residential water demand in the three major urban areas of Cyprus, a semi-arid country with medium to high income levels. Water demand turns out to be inelastic, but not insensitive, to prices; price elasticity is less than unity in absolute terms, but significantly different from zero. The analysis further shows that periodic interruptions in household water supply, which were applied as an urgent water saving measure in 2008–2009, did not encourage water conservation among the population. The paper discusses these results, pointing at the need for appropriate water pricing policies and long-term planning in order to move towards sustainable water resource management.
• pp.96-102
VOL 442; (2013)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.96-102
Safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in developing countries: The case of Uganda
Baguma, D.; Hashim, J. H.; Aljunid, S. M.; Loiskandl, W.
The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women’s participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries.
• pp.215-224
Regional water footprint evaluation in China: A case of Liaoning
Dong, H.; Geng, Y.; Sarkis, J.; Fujita, T.; Okadera, T.; Xue, B.
Water-related problems are currently second only to energy issues as threats to human society. North China is a region that is facing severe water scarcity problems. In order to provide appropriate water mitigation policies a regional study is completed. Under this circumstance, Liaoning Province, a typical heavy industrial province in north China is chosen as a case study region. The input-output analysis method is employed in order to evaluate the water footprint both from production and consumption perspectives. The results show that the total water footprint of Liaoning in 2007 was 7.30billionm^3, a 84.6% of internal water footprint and a 15.4% external water footprint. The water trade balance of Liaoning was 2.68billionm^3, indicating that Liaoning was a net water export region, although water shortages are becoming a more serious concern. The ”Agriculture” and ”Food and beverage production” sectors are found to have the highest water footprint, water intensity, water exports, and water trade balance. Based upon Liaoning realities policy implications and suggestions are made, including industrial and trade structure adjustment, application of water efficient technology and management measures, and appropriate capacity-building efforts. The methodology and findings may be useful for investigation of water footprints throughout various regions of the world.
VOL 47; NUMB 2 (2013)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.517-523
Free chlorine inactivation of fungi in drinking water sources
Pereira, V. J.; Marques, R.; Marques, M.; Benoliel, M. J.; Barreto Crespo, M. T.
The effectiveness of free chlorine for the inactivation of fungi present in settled surface water was tested. In addition, free chlorine inactivation rate constants of Cladosporium tenuissimum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Phoma glomerata, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Penicillium citrinum that were found to occur in different source waters were determined in different water matrices (laboratory grade water and settled water). The effect of using different disinfectant concentrations (1 and 3 mg/l), temperatures (21 and 4 degreeC), and pH levels (6 and 7) was addressed. The sensitivity degree of different fungi isolates to chlorine disinfection varied among different genera with some species showing a higher resistance to disinfection and others expected to be more prone to protection from inactivation by the water matrix components. When the disinfection efficiency measured in terms of the chlorine concentration and contact time (Ct) values needed to achieve 99% inactivation were compared with the Ct values reported as being able to achieve the same degree of inactivation of other microorganisms, fungi were found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than bacteria and viruses and less resistant than Cryptosporidium oocysts.

• pp.569-578
Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence
Blaustein, R. A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Hill, R. L.; Shelton, D. R.; Whelan, G.
Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q10 equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies “log concentration vs. time.” There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q10 equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of the Q10 coefficient appear to be site-specific. Results of this work indicate possible sources of uncertainty to be accounted for in watershed-scale microbial water quality modeling.
VOL 165; ISSU 4 (2012)
ISSN 0965-0903
• pp.187-188
Engineers for Africa: identifying engineering capacity needs in sub-Saharan Africa
Matthews, P.; Ryan-Collins, L.; Wells, J.; Sillem, H.; Wright, H.
VOL 66; NUMB 12 (2012)
ISSN 0273-1223
• pp.2505-2516
A focus on pressure-driven membrane technology in olive mill wastewater reclamation: state of the art
Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martinez-Ferez, A.
• pp.2659-2665
Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains
Ly, D.K.; Chui, T.F.M.
• pp.2674-2681
Faecal contamination of public water sources in informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya
Opisa, S.; Odiere, M.R.; Jura, W.G.Z.O.; Karanja, D.M.S.; Mwinzi, P.N.M.
• pp.2702-2711
Urban water infrastructure asset management – a structured approach in four water utilities
Cardoso, M.A.; Silva, M.S.; Coelho, S.T.; Almeida, M.C.; Covas, D.I.C.
• pp.2779-2784
Pilot plant study of alternative filter media for rapid gravity filtration
Davies, P.D.; Wheatley, A.D.
• pp.2808-2813
Influence of flow velocity on the removal of faecal coliforms in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland
Lohay, W.S.; Lyimo, T.J.; Njau, K.N.
Jijakli, K., Arafat, H., Kennedy, S. et al. (2012)
How green solar desalination really is? Environmental assessment using life-cycle analysis (LCA) approach.
Desalination 287:123-131.
In this study, we compare three desalination based alternatives for water supply in off-grid areas, and assess their environmental footprint. The three options are: (a) a solar still, (b) a photo-voltaic (PV) powered reverse osmosis (RO) unit, and (c) water delivery by truck from a central RO plant. By use of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a comprehensive environmental modeling of the three systems is carried out. The basic systems, components and processes are modeled, and then varied, in order to offer a deeper insight into the robustness of the model.
Our findings indicate that energy generation and materials usage are critical parameters when the considered alternative options are compared. Of the three options, PV-RO is found to have the least environmental impact. The usefulness of this study is that it provides policy-makers insights into renewable energy desalination for clean water production and, thus, it promotes the deployment of low-carbon desalination technologies.

• HABITAT INTERNATIONAL VOL 38; (2013) pp.207-213
Colonization and sanitation in urban Africa: A logistics analysis of the availability of central sewerage systems as a function of colonialism
Njoh, A. J.