Tricia’s snippets 2013-04-04

From Sanitation Updates:

Clean the World Adds 2 New Board Members
RFP: Research for Hygiene Behavioural Change among School Children in the Philippines
Posted: 02 Apr 2013

What have the Romans and aid every done for anyone? Apart from clean water, sanitation and …
Posted: 30 Mar 2013 12:45 AM PDT

India, New Delhi: garbage trucks to be fitted with GPS and radio devices
WEDC & WSP online learning course – Rural Sanitation at Scale
Sustaining sanitation – Pan European Networks interviews Joep Verhagen
Posted: 29 Mar 2013

WaterAid – Everyone, everywhere: A vision for water, sanitation and hygiene post-2015
Sanitation as a business – the poor will have to wait
Posted: 28 Mar 2013

Matt Damon continues his global crusade for toilets
Posted: 27 Mar 2013

Global Sanitation Fund helps 1.4 million people gain improved sanitation
Posted: 26 Mar 2013 04:01 AM PDT

Top 10 Finalists of the Sanitation Hackathon App Challenge announced
Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: A Systematic Review
(see also below)
Posted: 25 Mar 2013

Jay Graham – Selling toilets in Cambodia: WaterSHED style
Empirical Study of Urban WASH Impacts: Research on the Relationship of Population Density and Neighborhood-Level Sanitation…
Desk Review Study of Urban WASH Impacts: Research on the Relationship of Population Density…
Posted: 20 Mar 2013

Water and sanitation crusader killed in Karachi attack
Posted: 16 Mar 2013 04:36 AM PDT

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH Sustainability
Posted: 15 Mar 2013 06:53 AM PDT

Issue 92 | March 15, 2013 | Focus on WASH Sustainability
Designing effective contracts for small-scale service providers in urban water and sanitation
Posted: 13 Mar 2013 10:35 AM PDT

Interesting links:

IWA Water Wiki

Graham, Jay P. & Polizzotto, Matthew L.
Pit latrines and their impact on groundwater quality: a systematic review
Environmental Health Perspectives (online 22 March 2013)

Utility Management Series for Small Towns (Volumes 1-6)
UNCHS-Habitat Jan 2013

  • Finance Policies and Procedures Manual Volume 1
  • Customer Services User manual Volume 2
  • Block Mapping Guidelines Volume 3
  • Water Audit Manual Volume 4
  • Leakage Control Manual Volume 5
  • Reduction of Illegal Water Volume 6 

Link to Volume 1

Trends in groundwater pollution: loss of groundwater quality and related aquifers services
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Global Environmental Facility (GEF), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), UNESCO-International Hydrological Programme (IHP), World Bank. 2012

A selection from email alerts:

Sanitation: A Global Estimate of Sewerage Connections without Treatment and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress
Baum, R.; Luh, J.; Bartram, J.
• WATER SEWAGE AND EFFLUENT VOL 33; NUMB 1 (2013) pp.27-29
Limpopo school sanitation stinks With schools facing a severe sanitation crisis human rights’ champions demand answers
VOL 447; (2013)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.108-115
The occurrence of disinfection by-products in municipal drinking water in China’s Pearl River Delta and a multipathway cancer risk assessment
Gan, W.; Guo, W.; Mo, J.; He, Y.; Liu, Y.; Liu, W.; Liang, Y.; Yang, X.
Disinfection byproducts were measured in the finished drinking water from ten water treatment plants in three Chinese cities – Guangzhou, Foshan and Zhuhai. A total of 155 water samples were collected in 2011 and 2012. The median (range) of trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) levels were 17.7 (0.7-62.7) mg/L and 8.6 (0.3-81.3) mg/L, respectively. Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the dominant species observed in Guangzhou and Foshan water, while brominated THMs predominated in water from Zhuhai. Haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate and trichloronitromethane were usually detected at levels ranging from unquantifiable (<0.2mg/L) to 12.2mg/L (choral hydrate). THMs and HAAs showed clear seasonal variations with the total concentrations higher in winter than in summer. Correlations among DBP levels varied, with the strongest linear correlation observed between chloroform and chloral hydrate levels (R^2=0.77). The risk of cancer from ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact exposure to THMs was estimated. CHCl2Br contributed the highest percentage of the cancer risk from ingestion pathway and CHCl3 contributed the highest of cancer risk from inhalation pathway.

VOL 449; (2013)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.134-142
Application of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to analyze the public health risk from poor drinking water quality in a low income area in Accra, Ghana
Machdar, E.; van der Steen, N. P.; Raschid-Sally, L.; Lens, P. N.
In Accra, Ghana, a majority of inhabitants lives in over-crowded areas with limited access to piped water supply, which is often also intermittent. This study assessed in a densely populated area the risk from microbial contamination of various sources of drinking water, by conducting a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk to human health from microorganism exposure and dose-response relationships. Furthermore the cost-effectiveness in reducing the disease burden through targeted interventions was evaluated. Five risk pathways for drinking water were identified through a survey (110 families), namely household storage, private yard taps, communal taps, communal wells and water sachets. Samples from each source were analyzed for Escherichia coli and Ascaris contamination. Published ratios between E. coli and other pathogens were used for the QMRA and disease burden calculations. The major part of the burden of disease originated from E. coli O157:H7 (78%) and the least important contributor was Cryptosporidium (0.01%). Other pathogens contributed 16% (Campylobacter), 5% (Rotavirus) and 0.3% (Ascaris). The sum of the disease burden of these pathogens was 0.5DALYs per person per year, which is much higher than the WHO reference level. The major contamination pathway was found to be household storage. Disinfection of water at household level was the most cost-effective intervention (<5USD/DALY-averted) together with hygiene education. Water supply network improvements were significantly less cost-effective.

VOL 32; NUMB 1 (2013)
ISSN 0262-8104
• pp.5-22
Towards understanding the water and sanitation hygiene beliefs and practices of the Twa of south-west Uganda
Massie, A.H.; Webster, J.
• pp.23-35
Heavy loads: children’s burdens of water carrying in Malawi
Robson, E.; Porter, G.; Hampshire, K.; Munthali, A.
• pp.36-49
Qualitative risk assessment of self-supply hand-dug wells in Abeokuta, Nigeria: a water safety plan approach
Oluwasanya, G.
• pp.50-57
On the road to sustainable sanitation: an overview of practices and lessons learned from a sanitation programme in Malawi
Munkhondia, T.
• pp.58-73
Identifying appropriate sanitation for near-coastal communities in Vizhinjam (Kerala, India) adopting the sanitation-approach framework
Vijayalekshmi, M.; Surendran, S.K.; Mani, M.
• pp.74-86
Impacts of emergencies on water and wastewater systems in congested urban areas
Matthews, E.C.; Matthews, J.C.

VOL 10; NUMB 2 (2013)
ISSN 1573-062X
• pp.85-96
A financial economic model for urban water pricing in Brazil
Mesquita, A.M.; Ruiz, R.M.
• pp.97-104
Negotiating marginalities: right to water in Delhi
Roy, D.
• pp.105-111
Evaluation of residential rainfall harvesting systems in Jordan
Abu-Zreig, M.; Hazaymeh, A.; Shatanawi, M.
• pp.112-126
Rainwater harvesting in the UK: exploring water-user perceptions
Ward, S.; Barr, S.; Memon, F.; Butler, D.
• pp.127-143
Cost-effectiveness-based multi-criteria optimization for sustainable rainwater utilization: A case study in Shanghai
Lu, Y.P.; Yang, K.; Che, Y.; Shang, Z.Y.; Zhu, H.F.; Jian, Y.