Tricia’s snippets 2013-09-04

Apologies for the delay since the last snippets!

2 interesting items:

Cap-Net Training materials
These materials have been developed with support from Cap-Net and are freely available for use and adaptation however please acknowledge the source. We are pleased to receive mail on how you have used the materials. If you have translated any of these materials into another language we will be pleased to upload them to this site. All of the following training packages are available on CD from Cap-Net.

Yael Velleman (WaterAid) &  Isabelle Pugh (SHARE)
July 2013
Under-nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene 

A selection from email alerts:

• INDIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WORK VOL 73; ISSU 4 (2012) pp.503-524
Sanitation Costs and Services in Selected Villages of Andhra Pradesh
Snehalatha, M.; Reddy, V.R.; Jayakumar, N.
Assessment of Village Water and Sanitation Committee in a District of Tamil Nadu, India
Ganesh, S.R.; Kumar, S.G.; Sarkar, S.; Kar, S.S.; Roy, G.; Premarajan, K.C.
Two-stage mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic digestion for sludge sanitation to obtain advanced treated sludge
Lloret, E.; Salar, M. J.; Blaya, J.; Pascual, J. A.
In the present study, raw, mesophilic anaerobic, and thermophilic anaerobic sludge were analysed to evaluate whether the pathogen content limits established in the ”Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on spreading of sludge on land” were satisfied. Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores were cultivated and pathogenity genes invA and cpa PCR-amplified. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion produced Class A biosolids by eliminating E. coli and Salmonella spp. but did not accomplished the microbial requirements of the future Directive due to the presence of C. perfringens spores (9.6×10^4CFUsmL^-^1). Hence, the final goal of this work was to propose a two-stage process capable of removing the spores of C. perfringens to obtain an advanced treated sludge that could be land-applied with no environmental risks. The first stage of the process suggested in this study involved the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of the sludge while the second stage of operation consisted of an aerobic or anaerobic thermophilic digestion.
• PLoS ONE Vol. 8; No. 8 (2013)
Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on Latrine Coverage and Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa Three Years following Programme Implementation
Barnard, Sharmani; Routray, Parimita; Majorin, Fiona; Peletz, Rachel; Boisson, Sophie; Sinha, Antara
Faced with a massive shortfall in meeting sanitation targets, some governments have implemented campaigns that use subsidies focused on latrine construction to overcome income constraints and rapidly expand coverage. In settings like rural India where open defecation is common, this may result in sub-optimal compliance (use), thereby continuing to leave the population exposed to human excreta. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate latrine coverage and use among 20 villages (447 households, 1933 individuals) in Orissa, India where the Government of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years previously. We defined coverage as the proportion of households that had a latrine; for use we identified the proportion of households with at least one reported user and among those, the extent of reported use by each member of the household. Results Mean latrine coverage among the villages was 72% (compared to <10% in comparable villages in the same district where the Total Sanitation Campaign had not yet been implemented), though three of the villages had less than 50% coverage. Among these households with latrines, more than a third (39%) were not being used by any member of the household. Well over a third (37%) of the members of households with latrines reported never defecating in their latrines. Less than half (47%) of the members of such households reported using their latrines at all times for defecation. Combined with the 28% of households that did not have latrines, it appears that most defecation events in these communities are still practiced in the open. Conclusion A large-scale campaign to implement sanitation has achieved substantial gains in latrine coverage in this population. Nevertheless, gaps in coverage and widespread continuation of open defecation will result in continued exposure to human excreta, reducing the potential for health gains.
Dealing with the rural sanitation backlog in the Chris Hani District Municipality – a case study
Water S.A 39.3  (2013): 361-367.
Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities: Experiences from community ablution blocks in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa
Crous, P; Haarhoff, J; Buckley, C A.
The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is rolling out community ablution blocks to infor- mal settlements throughout their jurisdiction. This paper investigates the water demand characteristics of these community ablution blocks, and provides a detailed methodology for collecting the data, which provides the 15-minute peak and average water demand. The results from January to November 2012 indicate that the majority of the water supply (60%) is used for laundry purposes, which includes the water used in the laundry basins and from the tap for off-site consumption, while the water demand for toilet flushing accounts for 16% of the total water supply from each facility. The peak and average water demand can be used for future hydraulic modelling of these, and other, communal ablution facilities. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT : Urban water management: public-private participation and water pricing
VOL 29; NUMB 3 (2013)
ISSN 0790-0627
• pp.300-309
Policy Brief: The urban water challenge
Rouse, M.
• pp.310-326
Enhancing the performance of water prices and tariff structures in achieving socially desirable outcomes
Wichelns, D.
• pp.327-342
A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?
Zetland, D.; Gasson, C.
• pp.343-351
Glas Cymru: lessons from nine years as a not-for-profit public-private partnership
Owen, D.L.
• pp.352-372
A critical examination of models and projections of demand in water utility resource planning in England and Wales
Walker, G.
• pp.373-384
The dynamics of privatization and regulation of water services: a comparative study of two Spanish regions
Bel, G.; Gonzalez-Gomez, F.; Picazo-Tadeo, A.J.
• pp.385-399
Public choice of urban water service management: a multi-criteria approach
Ruiz-Villaverde, A.; Gonzalez-Gomez, F.; Picazo-Tadeo, A.J.
• pp.400-414
Adopting versus adapting: adoption of water-saving technology versus water conservation habits in Spain
Martinez-Espineira, R.; Garcia-Valinas, M.A.
• pp.415-433
Assessing the impact of price and non-price policies on residential water demand: a case study in Wisconsin
Reynaud, A.
• pp.434-450
Water demand management: review of literature and comparison in South-East Asia
Araral, E.; Wang, Y.
• pp.451-471
Water service quality in Tanzania: access and management
Garcia-Valinas, M.A.; Miquel-Florensa, J.
• pp.472-491
State-of-the-art review: designing urban water tariffs to recover costs and promote wise use
Hoque, S.F.; Wichelns, D.

VOL 13; NUMB 4 (2013)
ISSN 1606-9749
• pp.932-938
Regulation of water service and efficient use of water
Drusiani, R.; Gatta, M.; Gerelli, G.G.
• pp.1080-1089
Improved risk assessment and risk reduction strategies in the Water Safety Plan (WSP) of Salta, Argentina
Seghezzo, L.; D Andrea, M.L.G.; Iribarnegaray, M.A.; Liberal, V.I.; Fleitas, A.; Bonifacio, J.L.
• pp.1109-1115
Arsenic removal using novel combined Fe/Mn adsorbent modified with silica
Nguyen, D.C.; Park, H.J.; Dockko, S.; Han, M.Y.


From Sanitation Updates:

Asian Development Bank and Gates Foundation set up new sanitation trust fund
Posted: 03 Sep 2013 02:00 AM PDT

Tapping the Market: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Sanitation for the Poor
Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:13 AM PDT

Online Course “Governance in Urban Sanitation”
Posted: 28 Aug 2013 12:13 AM PDT

Aug. 31, 2013 – 17th Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) Meeting!!!
Thai researcher reinvents toilets for urban poor
 Rose George. Let’s talk crap. Seriously
No Menstrual Hygiene For Indian Women Holds Economy Back
Posted: 23 Aug 2013 07:22 AM PDT

Harold Lockwood – USAID and Rotary International adopt innovative sustainability monitoring tool
WASHplus Weekly: Sanitation Marketing
Posted: 16 Aug 2013  

Turning sweat into drinking water for Unicef
Improving Access to WASH: Is the Answer Individual Behavioral Change?
Posted: 14 Aug 2013

SACOSAN-V – South Asian Conference on Sanitation – new date
Creative measures improve sanitation programmes in eight African countries
WASHplus Weekly: Cholera Prevention and Control
Toxic waste’s health impact in Asia similar to malaria’s
Posted: 09 Aug 2013