Tricia’s snippets 2013-10-02

Quite a long list of interesting ‘bits and pieces’ this time!

Updated WHO/WEDC Technical Notes on WASH in Emergencies – Just published:

A package of 16 illustrated notes, originally prepared in 2011 and updated in 2013, provide practical, evidence-based recommendations in responding to immediate and medium-term water, sanitation and hygiene needs of populations affected by emergencies.  Updates reflect new evidence and best practices on water treatment and the role of household water treatment and safe storage, water quantity needs, and rehabilitation of wells and boreholes.
To access the technical notes please visit:

Coordinating reporting on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) service delivery in Africa through the implementation of the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water: GLAAS 2014

Thirty-two countries in Africa are now mobilizing to review how to improve water and sanitation service delivery as part of the UN-Water WHO-led GLAAS process. Following the African Regional Workshop on the implementation of the 2014 Global Assessment and Analysis of Sanitation and Drinking-Water held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in August 2013, countries are in the process of assessing the level and trends of institutional, financial and human resource capacity in the drinking water and sanitation sector, the nature and impact of government policies, the volume and targeting of foreign assistance, as well as coordination and harmonization of WASH stakeholders. The results will help understand the extent to which these factors influence the achievement of the drinking water and sanitation MDGs, provide a global overview of the “enabling environment” for WASH, and ensure that resources are directed toward key bottlenecks.
Further information:

UNICEF Ethiopia
Hold your breath… Water and Sanitation is about to go big in Ethiopia

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

The Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the dissemination of high-quality information on the science, policy and practice of drinking-water supply, sanitation and hygiene at local, national and international levels, published by IWA Publishing.
Click on the links below to view abstracts of some of the papers included in the latest issue of the journal:
For subscription information on the journal:
For a sample copy:
To register for ContentsAlert:

Many useful and interesting articles in this journal (including 2 by WEDC staff): 

Volume 3 Number 3
Girls’ and women’s unmet needs for menstrual hygiene management (MHM): the interactions between MHM and sanitation systems in low-income countries
Marni Sommer, Marianne Kjellén and Chibesa Pensulo

Sanitation in developing countries: a review through a gender lens
E. Tilley, S. Bieri and P. Kohler

Using covenants in loan agreements to promote tariff reform
Michael Fortin

Evaluation of user satisfaction of rural water supply in Yemen
Ahmed M. Alderwish and Jane Dottridge

 ANN versus SARIMA models in forecasting residential water consumption in Tunisia
Maamar Sebri

Use of Certeza point-of-use water treatment product in Mozambique
Jennifer Wheeler and Sohail Agha

 Community-based quality management of non-piped drinking water sources in Koboko and Yumbe
T. Gerlach, A. K. Mayr and D. S. Kenyi

The impact of loading frequency and copper as a biocide on biosand filter performance
Elizabeth M. Hyde and Laura W. Lackey

Determination of capital costs for conventional sewerage systems (collection, transportation and treatment) in a developing country
Marcos von Sperling and Bruno Lopes Salazar

Characterisation and fluidisation of synthetic pit latrine sludge
J. T. Radford and R. A. Fenner

Energy production and sanitation improvement using microbial fuel cells
I. Ieropoulos, J. Greenman, D. Lewis and O. Knoop

 Water safety planning: adapting the existing approach to community-managed systems in rural Nepal
Dani Barrington, Kathryn Fuller and Andrew McMillan

 Effective water safety management of piped water networks in low-income urban settlements
Sam Kayaga (WEDC)

Identifying pathways to continued maintenance of school sanitation in Belize
Christie Chatterley, Karl G. Linden and Amy Javernick-Will

Evolution of contract structures in water supply and sanitation
Didier Carron, Jan G. Janssens and Vivian Castro-Wooldridge

 A qualitative study of access to sanitation amongst low-income working women in Bangalore, India
Divya Rajaraman, Sandra M. Travasso and S. Jody Heymann

Reporting aid flows for water supply and sanitation: official development assistance
A. Cotton (WEDC)

 Social franchising principles do work: the business approach to removal and disposal of faecal sludge – from pilot to scale
K. Wall, O. Ive, J. Bhagwan and F. Kirwan

An opportunity not to be missed – immunisation as an entry point for hygiene promotion and diarrhoeal disease reduction in Nepal
Yael Velleman, Katie Greenland and Om Prasad Gautam

 Mitigation of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water sources in rural areas in India: an overview
Brajesh K. Shrivastava

 A selection from email alerts:

VOL 463-464; (2013)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.72-77
Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems
Aranda Uson, A.; Ferreira, G.; Zambrana Vasquez, D.; Zabalza Bribian, I.; Llera Sastresa, E.
Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one.

• pp.657-666
Vision and perception of community on the use of recycled water for household laundry: A case study in Australia
Mainali, B.; Pham, T. T.; Ngo, H. H.; Guo, W.; Miechel, C.; O’Halloran, K.; Muthukaruppan, M.; Listo
This study investigates the community perception of household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in three different locations of Australia through a face to face questionnaire survey (n=478). The study areas were selected based on three categories of (1) non-user, (2) perspective user and (3) current user of recycled water. The survey results indicate that significantly higher number (70%) of the respondents supported the use of recycled water for washing machines (^2=527.40, df=3; p=0.000). Significant positive correlation between the overall support for the new end use and the willingness of the respondents to use recycled water for washing machine was observed among all users groups (r=0.43, p=0.000). However, they had major concerns regarding the effects of recycled water on the aesthetic appearance of cloth, cloth durability, machine durability, odour of the recycled water and cost along with the health issues. The perspective user group had comparatively more reservations and concerns about the effects of recycled water on washing machines than the non-users and the current users (^2=52.73, df=6; p=0.000). Overall, community from all three study areas are willing to welcome this new end use as long as all their major concerns are addressed and safety is assured.
• pp.700-711
Water-sanitation-hygiene mapping: An improved approach for data collection at local level
Gine-Garriga, R.; de Palencia, A. J.; Perez-Foguet, A.
Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District -Kenya-; Kibondo District -Tanzania-; and Municipality of Manhica -Mozambique-) are presented.
• pp.1147-1153
Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences
Sthiannopkao, S.; Wong, M. H.
Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden.
• pp.1182-1191
Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana
Asem-Hiablie, S.; Church, C. D.; Elliott, H. A.; Shappell, N. W.; Schoenfuss, H. L.; Drechsel, P.; W
Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 b-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6ng/L+/-2.7ng/L; WSP, 4.9ng/L+/-1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4+/-1.1ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8ng/L+/-1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2ng/L+/-2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7+/-5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p 0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater.
• pp.1210-1216
Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces
Hashim, J. H.; Radzi, R. S.; Aljunid, S. M.; Nur, A. M.; Ismail, A.; Baguma, D.; Sthiannopkao, S.; P
Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of >=1mg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee’s lines. Results also suggest a 1.0mg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation.
• pp.1217-1224
Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India
Hossain, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Murrill, M.; Das, B.; Roy, B.; Dey, S.; Maity, D.; Chakraborti, D.
A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12+/-1.17L/day and 78.07+/-47.08mL/kg/day (+/- SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80+/-0.64L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.

VOL 11; NUMB 3 (2013)
ISSN 1477-8920
• pp.443-456
Comparative study of disinfectants for use in low-cost gravity driven household water purifiers
Patil, R.A.; Kausley, S.B.; Balkunde, P.L.; Malhotra, C.P.
• pp.489-506
Water quality perceptions and willingness to pay for clean water in peri-urban Cambodian communities
Orgill, J.; Shaheed, A.; Brown, J.; Jeuland, M.
• pp.507-519
Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya
Alexander, K.T.; Dreibelbis, R.; Freeman, M.C.; Ojeny, B.; Rheingans, R.
• pp.520-531
Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities
de Queiroz, J.T.M.; de Franca Doria, M.; Rosenberg, M.W.; Heller, L.; Zhouri, A.
• pp.532-542
Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh
Islam, M.A.; Sakakibara, H.; Karim, M.R.; Sekine, M.
• pp.543-554
Mechanisms of post-supply contamination of drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania
Harris, A.R.; Davis, J.; Boehm, A.B.
Indigenous Knowledge System of the Fishermen of Sunderbans in West Bengal and their Approaches to Health Sanitation and Climate
Sarkar, M.

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in areas devoid of sanitation in northwestern Kingdom of Swaziland, Southern Africa
Fan, C.-K.; Liao, C.-W.; Lyu, S.-Y.; Sukati, H.; Ji, D.-D.; Cho, C.-M.; Jien, J.-Y.; Huang, Y.-C.; C

From Sanitation Updates:

An ideal sanitation solution
Posted: 01 Oct 2013 10:04 AM PDT

RTI International – A Better Toilet for a Cleaner World
Posted: 26 Sep 2013 09:19 AM PDT

Designing a handwashing station for infrastructure-restricted communities in Bangladesh
Achieving sustainability: encouraging local government investment
Posted: 24 Sep 2013

Extended call for abstracts: West Africa Workshop “Towards sustainable total sanitation”:
Posted: 23 Sep 2013 05:05 PM PDT

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH & Nutrition
Posted: 20 Sep 2013 10:25 AM PDT

Achieving sustainability: guiding entrepreneurs to independence
Nepal: first municipality achieves “Total Behaviour Change”
Posted: 18 Sep 2013

Making hygiene the central issue
Posted: 14 Sep 2013 02:54 AM PDT

WSUP Call for Expressions of Interest (EOIs)
USAID Webinar on Environmental Enteropathy and WASH!
Posted: 13 Sep 2013  

Big business pledge for access to WASH @ workplace
Posted: 05 Sep 2013 07:24 AM PDT