Tricia’s snippets 2014-03-13

A few interesting items:

Torondel, B., Opare, D., Brandberg, B., Cobb, E.
and Cairncross, S., 2014.
Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers
 BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 14 (57), pp. 1-7

ODF Sustainability Study by Plan International
http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/resource/odf-sustainability-study-plan

Wolf-Peter Schmidt
The elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease
Tropical Medicine & International HealthEarly View, Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tmi.12286/pdf

Link for Sanitation Updates:

http://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/

A selection from email alerts:

• UTILITIES POLICY VOL 28; (2014) pp.42-51 Efficiency in Brazil’s water and sanitation sector and its relationship with regional provision, property and the independence of operators Ferro, G.; Lentini, E. J.; Mercadier, A. C.; Romero, C. A. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to assess the comparative efficiency of Brazil’s water and sanitation sector. We run a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model for a panel of 127 providers covering more than 70 percent of the country’s urban population in the period 2003-2010. We use a database built on the National System of Sanitation Statistics (SNIS). The model is fitting and shows a modest efficiency average. The study has policy implications in the discussion of state-level run v. municipal-level run, government-owned v. private-provision, and corporatized providers v. dependent ones. The optimal industrial organization of the sector is discussed from the efficiency perspective. We find that regional and micro-regional firms’ have lower costs than municipal providers. Administrative independence seems not relevant when explaining the cost structure, but ownership is. The joint provision of water and sanitation results in higher fixed costs compared to water-only operators. We find that there are not regional differences in cost structures. However, there are slight variations in the efficiency levels and in their dispersion in each region. Finally, inefficiency decreased at a rate of 4.9 percent per year during the time frame under study.

• HABITAT INTERNATIONAL VOL 42; (2014) pp.69-75 Emptying, Transportation and Disposal of feacal sludge in informal settlements of Kampala Uganda: The economics of sanitation Murungi, C.; van Dijk, M. P. Abstract Emptying, transportation and disposal of feacal sludge in informal settlements of Kampala Uganda is still a big challenge. With the use of semi-structured interviews, observation and review of secondary data, this study aims at identifying actors and factors determining emptying costs and the constraints limiting improved service provision. Individual private cesspool operators and Kampala City Council Authority (KCCA) on behalf of public services determine emptying charges. The main determining factors are: the capacity of the truck, fuel, distance, labor, dumping costs and profit margins of the cesspool truck operator and or the owner of the truck. The main constraints faced included limited number and poor maintenance of cesspool trucks, poor quality vacuum pumps and pipes, poor maintenance of pit latrines and customers’ ignorance on the functionality of cesspool trucks. It is concluded that emptying prices are too high and a bottleneck to sludge removal. To influence emptying fees there is need to develop policies to regulate pricing, increase the number of cesspool trucks to stimulate competition, improve institutional capacity and encourage partnership, provide financial support and ensure that subsidies are ‘tapped’ by the rightful persons and sensitize the communities on the performance of cesspool trucks.

• PLoS Medicine Vol. 11; No. 2 (2014) Effect of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene on the Prevention of Trachoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Haddad, Danny; Addiss, David G.; McGuire, Courtney; Freeman,

• BMC Public Health Vol. 14; (2014) pp.208-208 Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012 Hopewell, Mike R; Graham, Jay P Abstract Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys – these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) household’s time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on “improved” services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights the need to better characterize access, beyond definitions of improved and unimproved, as well as the need to target resources to cities where changes in WS&S access have stalled, or in some cases regressed.

• ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE VOL 6; NUMB 6 (2013) pp.200-205 Nocturnal Convenience1: The Problem of Securing Universal Sanitation Access in Alabama’s Black Belt Abstract On-site sanitation (OSS) is not universal in the rural United States: access to and function of available options are limited by geological, economic, regulatory, and policy constraints. In Alabama’s rural Black Belt region, widespread impermeability of soils and a lack of locally accepted, cost-effective technical solutions contribute to limited access to functional OSS. Despite the existence of federal and state financial assistance programs intended to increase access to sanitation, potential beneficiaries may not be able to readily access assistance. Based on structured interviews with local stakeholders, this article provides an overview of the problem and perceived barriers to securing universal sanitation. Promising options that may increase OSS access include technical innovation, improving sanitation literacy, increasing the accessibility of financial assistance programs, and policy initiatives that proactively engage with underserved communities. These and other measures should be explored to create an enabling environment for the provision of universal sanitation coverage in the Black Belt

WATERLINES -LONDON- VOL 33; NUMB 1 (2014) ISSN 0262-8104

• pp.3-5 Guest editorial: Quantifying the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions Godfrey, S.
• pp.6-12 Crossfire: `Feasible or not feasible: the application of impact evaluations in WASH programming’ Wijesekera, S.; Perez, E.
• pp.13-25 Learning by design: lessons from a baseline study in the NAMWASH Small Towns Programme, Mozambique Barrington, D.J.; Admiraal, R.
• pp.26-34 Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: using behavioural economics to improve the impact of WASH interventions Coville, A.; Orozco, V.
• pp.35-44 Impact study of the One Million Initiative rural water and sanitation programme in Mozambique Godfrey, S.; Van Der Velden, M.; Muianga, A.; Vigh, M.; Gunning, J.W.; Elbers, C.
• pp.45-54 Keeping it simple: a gender-specific sanitation tool for emergencies De Lange, R.; Lenglet, A.; Fesselet, J.F.; Gartley, M.; Altyev, A.; Fisher, J.; Shanks, L. • pp.55-70 The effects of the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing programme on gender and ethnic groups in Indonesia Borja-Vega, C.
• pp.71-88 Implementing sustainable water and sanitation projects in rural, developing communities Barnes, R.; Ashbolt, N.; Roser, D.; Brown, P.

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL 69; NUMB 1 (2014) ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.15-24 Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies Bauerfeld, K.
• pp.38-47 Treatment of municipal wastewater using horizontal flow constructed wetlands in Egypt Abou-Elela, S.I.; Golinelli, G.; El-Tabl, A.S.; Hellal, M.S.
• pp.99-105 Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems Penn, R.; Schutze, M.; Friedler, E.
• pp.106-112 French vertical flow constructed wetlands: a need of a better understanding of the role of the deposit layer Molle, P.

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL 69; NUMB 2 (2014) ISSN 0273-1223

• pp.278-285 Lamella settlers for storm water treatment – performance and design recommendations Fuchs, S.; Mayer, I.; Haller, B.; Roth, H.
• pp.335-342 Experiences from the full-scale implementation of a new two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland design Langergraber, G.; Pressl, A.; Haberl, R.
• pp.350-357 The effect of aeration and effluent recycling on domestic wastewater treatment in a pilot-plant system of duckweed ponds Ben-shalom, M.; Shandalov, S.; Brenner, A.; Oron, G.

SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT VOL 478; (2014) ISSN 0048-9697

• pp.21-24 Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar van Geen, A.; Win, K. H.; Zaw, T.; Naing, W.; Mey, J. L.; Mailloux, B. Abstract: Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630mg/L) were measured in wells up to 60m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05mg/L). Concentrations of As <10mg/L were measured in some shallow (<30m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults.

SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT VOL 476-477; (2014) ISSN 0048-9697

• pp.601-610 A nanofiltration-coagulation integrated system for separation and stabilization of arsenic from groundwater Pal, P.; Chakrabortty, S.; Linnanen, L. Abstract A membrane-integrated hybrid treatment system has been developed for continuous removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater with simultaneous stabilization of arsenic rejects for safe disposal. Both trivalent and pentavalent arsenic could be removed by cross flow nanofiltration following a chemical pre-oxidation step for conversion of trivalent arsenic into pentavalent form. The very choice of the membrane module and its judicious integration with upstream oxidation and downstream stabilization resulted in continuous removal of more than 98% arsenic from water that contained around 190mgL^-^1 of total suspended solid, 205mgL^-^1 of total dissolved solid, 0.18mgL^-^1 of arsenic and 4.8mgL^-^1 of iron at a pH of 7.2. The used flat sheet cross flow membrane module yielded a high flux of 144-145Lm^-^2h^-^1 at a transmembrane pressure of only 16kgf.cm^-^2 without the need for frequent replacement of the membranes. Transmembrane pressure, cross flow rate through the membrane module and oxidant dose were found to have pronounced effects on arsenic rejection and pure water flux. For the first time, an effective scheme for protection of the total environment has been ensured in this context where arsenic separated with high degree of efficiency has been stabilized in a solid matrix of iron and calcium under response surface optimized conditions. The study culminated in a total and sustainable solution to the problem of arsenic contamination of groundwater by offering arsenic-free water at a reasonably low price of only1.41$.m^-^3.

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT -DORDRECHT- VOL 28; NUMB 4 (2014) ISSN 0920-4741

• pp.1111-1125 Adapting to Less Water: Household Willingness to Pay for Decentralised Water Systems in Urban Australia Tapsuwan, S.; Burton, M.; Mankad, A.; Tucker, D.; Greenhill, M. Abstract In South East Queensland (SEQ), extended periods of drought and unprecedented population growth have resulted in a water strategy reliant on permanent water conservation measures. As a result, there has been increasing emphasis on the installation of decentralised water systems at the household level, in particular, rainwater tanks and greywater systems to ease the water shortage stress. Results from a survey of 590 households in SEQ reveal that willingness to pay (WTP) for rainwater tanks and greywater systems range from $800 to $7,400 and from $1,700 to $14,100, respectively. When compared to the actual market price, WTP is substantially lower and subsidies will be required to encourage adoption. Nonetheless, a subsidy of $500 can lead to 100 % uptake of greywater diversion devices. Hence, the policy implication is that not all devices are preferred and subsidising greywater diversion devices would lead to the highest level of uptake with the least amount of subsidy spending

WATER RESEARCH VOL 51; (2014) ISSN 0043-1354

• pp.47-54 Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment van der Laan, H.; van Halem, D.; Smeets, P. W.; Soppe, A. I.; Kroesbergen, J.; Wubbels, G.; Nedersti Abstract: In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation.