Tricia’s snippets 2014-04-16

Apologies for the gap since my last Snippets!

Always remember to check Sanitation Updates at:

The following is an assortment of interesting items:

Team Sanivation Wins Best Toilet Award!
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Best toilet award goes to…a group of Georgia Tech undergraduate students called Team Sanivation!
The students have been working with our Global WASH team and the nonprofit Sanivation and won the prestigious InVenture Prize for their design of the Safi Choo Toilet.
For more detail see:!our-solution/c1viv

WASH in emergencies resources (from CARE)

§ House, S. et al., 2014. Violence, gender and WASH : a practitioner’s toolkit : making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services. Humanitarian exchange magazine, no. 60, February 2014. Available at: <>

Predictors of sustainability for community-managed handpumps in sub-saharan Africa: Evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda
Foster, Tim (School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, United Kingdom) Source: Environmental Science and
Technology, v 47, n 21, p 12037-12046, November 5, 2013
Rural water supply sustainability has remained an enduring policy challenge in sub-Saharan Africa for decades. Drawing on the largest data set assembled on rural water points in sub-Saharan Africa to date, this paper employs logistic regression analyses to identify operational, technical, institutional, financial, and environmental predictors of functionality for over 25 000 community-managed handpumps in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Risk factors significantly associated with nonfunctionality across all three countries were (a) system age, (b) distance from district/county capital, and (c) absence of user fee collection. In at least one of the three countries, other variables found to have significant multivariable adjusted associations with functionality status included well type, handpump type, funding organization, implementing organization, spare parts proximity, availability of a handpump mechanic, regular servicing, regular water committee meetings, women in key water committee positions, rainfall season, and perceived water quality. While the findings reinforce views that a multifaceted range of conditions is critical for the sustainability of community-managed handpumps, they also demonstrate that these factors remain absent from a high proportion of cases. Governments and development partners must significantly strengthen postconstruction support for operation and maintenance systems, and greater efforts are needed to test and evaluate alternative models for managing handpump water supplies. © 2013 American Chemical Society.(45 refs)
Download the World Water Development Report 2014, Water and Energy

Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation–a review.
Anand, Chirjiv K; Apul, Defne S; National Library of Medicine. Waste management (New York, N.Y.)34.2 (February 2014): 329-343.

Facilitation and Training Manuals for WASH Committees, Facilitators and Practitioners
The manuals here have been developed by Ross Kidd over many years as part of his extensive work designing and running training sessions and facilitating workshops all over the world. They have been developed for specific programs and countries, but much of the material is easily transferable to other contexts. Please feel free to use this materail. All we ask is that you acknowledge the source.
The documents available for download here are all in PDF format. Many are available in Word format also. Please email us if you want any of the Word versions.

A selection from email alerts:

Country clustering applied to the water and sanitation sector: a new tool with potential applications in research and policy.
Onda, Kyle; Crocker, Jonny; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Bartram, Jamie; National Library of Medicine. International journal of hygiene and environmental health217.2-3 (March 2014): 379-385.

Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Strunz, Eric C; Addiss, David G; Stocks, Meredith E; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; et al. PLoS medicine11.3 (March 2014): e1001620.

Geographical Inequalities in Use of Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation across Sub-Saharan Africa: Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Survey Data.
Pullan, Rachel L; Freeman, Matthew C; Gething, Peter W; Brooker, Simon J; National Library of Medicine. PLoS medicine11.4 (April 2014): e1001626.

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH): A Critical Component for Sustainable Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Schistosomiasis Control.
Campbell, Suzy J; Savage, Georgia B; Gray, Darren J; Atkinson, Jo-An M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; et al. PLoS neglected tropical diseases8.4 (April 2014): e2651.

Impact of rainfall on diarrheal disease risk associated with unimproved water and sanitation.
Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; et al. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene90.4 (April 2014): 705-711.

Systematic review and meta-analysis: association between water and sanitation environment and maternal mortality.
Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Campbell, Oona M R; National Library of Medicine. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH19.4 (April 2014): 368-387.

The impact of a school-based water supply and treatment, hygiene, and sanitation programme on pupil diarrhoea: a cluster-randomized trial.
Freeman, M C; Clasen, T; Dreibelbis, R; Saboori, S; Greene, L E; et al. Epidemiology and infection142.2 (February 2014): 340-351.

• pp.8-19 Water infrastructure as an essential element for human development Tortajada, C.
• pp.20-27 The worldwide urban water and wastewater infrastructure challenge Rouse, M.
• pp.28-36 Is water scarcity a constraint to feeding Asia’s growing population? Chartres, C.
• pp.37-46 Water services industry reforms in Malaysia Teo, Y.H.
• pp.47-59 Water infrastructure in China: the importance of full project life-cycle cost analysis in addressing water challenges Lu, S.

WATER POLICY VOL 16; NUMB 1 (2014) ISSN 1366-7017
• pp.39-61 A participatory decision making process for community-level water supply Honkalaskar, V.H.; Sohoni, M.; Bhandarkar, U.V.
• pp.102-123 Comparison of small-scale providers’ and utility performance in urban water supply: the case of Maputo, Mozambique Bhatt, J.
• pp.124-143 Benefits of rainwater harvesting for gardening and implications for future policy in Namibia Woltersdorf, L.; Jokisch, A.; Kluge, T.

• pp.211-223 De-nationalization and de-securitization of transboundary water resources: the Israeli-Palestinian case Brooks, D.B.; Trottier, J.
• pp.322-334 Water policy in Jordan Alqadi, K.A.; Kumar, L.
• pp.355-359 Institutional governance and regulation of water services. The essential elements Tortajada, C.

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LIBRARY : Management of Water Quality in Moldova VOL 69; (2014) ISSN 0921-092X

JOURNAL OF WATER SUPPLY RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY -AQUA VOL 63; NUMB 2 (2014) SPECIAL ISSUE: Resilient water supply systems: pursuing safety, sustainability and environmental friendliness

pp.159-181 Examining the Practice of Developing Human Rights Indicators to Facilitate Accountability for the Human Right to Water and Sanitation Meier, B. M.; Kestenbaum, J. G.; Kayser, G. L.; Amjad, U. Q.; Bartram, J.
Abstract: Flowing from the evolution of international legal obligations for water and sanitation, human rights practice has shifted to address state accountability for a human right to water and sanitation through the development of human rights indicators. This policy note focuses on efforts to develop indicators for state reporting to human rights treaty bodies, with human rights norms framing national reports and treaty bodies employing indicators to monitor the progressive realization of the human right to water and sanitation. In supporting evidence-based treaty monitoring through the United Nations (UN), both the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation have sought to develop indicators. This process of developing indicators for the human right to water and sanitation seeks to draw on previous indicator development practices, looking to these practices in framing, identifying and reviewing indicators. As part of a larger drive to facilitate rights-based accountability, there arises an imperative to study the political process of developing indicators, looking to past models in structuring future processes to assess the realization of the right to water and sanitation. Exploring the development of indicators for the human rights to health and education, this policy note analyses the indicator development process, proposing an indicator development process model as a basis for developing indicators that reflect the attributes of the right to water and sanitation, enlist key stakeholders in the policymaking process and have political relevance for state reporting to treaty bodies.

pp.13-21 Towards sustainable sanitation – the HAMBURG WATER Cycle in the settlement Jenfelder Au Augustin, K.; Skambraks, A.-K.; Li, Z.; Giese, T.; Rakelmann, U.; Meinzinger, F.; Schonlau, H.; Gunn

• pp.539-545 Stabilisation and mineralisation of sludge in reed bed systems after 10-20 years of operation Nielsen, S.; Peruzzi, E.; Macci, C.; Doni, S.; Masciandaro, G. • pp.640-646 Use of talc as low-cost clarifier for wastewater Grafia, A.L.; Castillo, L.A.; Barbosa, S.E.

• PLoS Medicine Vol. 11; No. 3 (2014) Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jurg; Freeman, M

 PLoS Medicine Vol. 11; No. 3 (2014) PLOS Medicine and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Committed Relationship The PLOS Medicine Editors,

• ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH DEVELOPMENT VOL 26; NUMB 2 (2012) pp.93-100 The status of hygien and sanitation practice among rural model families of the Health Extension Program (HEP) in wolayta ad Kembata Tembaro Zones of Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples’ Region of Ethiopia Chawicha, K.; Asnake, M.; Kassie, G.; Nigatu, T.; Belachew, M.; Zerihun, H.