Tricia’s snippets 2014-08-12

Rather a long list this time!

Please have patience and scroll through all of it.

Water, Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2014), Pages 1873-2163

Article: Marketing Household Water Treatment: Willingness to Pay Results from an Experiment in Rural Kenya by Annalise G. Blum, Clair Null and Vivian Hoffmann Water 2014, 6(7), 1873-1886; doi:10.3390/w6071873 This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Human Health

Reinventing the toilet for 2.5 billion people in need
The July issue of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization highlights efforts to design high-tech, low-cost toilets for the 2.5 billion people currently lacking access to basic sanitation infrastructure.  Lack of access to improved sanitationfacilities disproportionally affects the poor which puts them at increased risk for diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery and trachoma.

From Sanitation Updates:

Registration open for AfricaSan 4
Posted: 11 Aug 2014 06:09 AM PDT

Deprived of water and sanitation in Gaza
Dutch WASH Alliance – The Diamond Business Approach in Sanitation: a Malawi Case
WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Cholera and Ebola Outbreaks
(lots of useful links contained here)
Posted: 08 Aug 2014

The Bangladesh Paradox: exceptional health and sanitation advances despite poverty
India: Big push for small cities
Posted: 04 Aug 2014

Innovative communal sanitation models for the urban poor: Lessons from Uganda
WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Handwashing
Posted: 01 Aug 2014

WaterAid – Assessing the water, sanitation and hygiene needs of people living with HIV and AIDS in Papua New Guinea
Posted: 30 Jul 2014 09:25 AM PDT

UNESCO-IHE – Smart eSOS toilet for emergencies
Posted: 29 Jul 2014 11:09 AM PDT

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2nd Edition
Posted: 28 Jul 2014 10:33 AM PDT

How and Why Countries are Changing to Reach Universal Access in Rural Sanitation by 2030
Posted: 25 Jul 2014 11:28 AM PDT

FSM services in Lusaka: moving up the excreta management ladder
Posted: 22 Jul 2014 03:29 AM PDT

Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition: successes, challenges, and implications for integration
Posted: 18 Jul 2014 10:48 AM PDT

Multi-level sanitation governance: Understanding and overcoming the challenges in the sanitation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa
Posted: 17 Jul 2014 06:56 AM PDT

Poor Sanitation in India May Afflict Well-Fed Children With Malnutrition
Posted: 14 Jul 2014 06:24 AM PDT

WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Fecal Sludge Management
Posted: 11 Jul 2014 06:21 AM PDT

What we can learn from Brazil’s wastepickers
Posted: 08 Jul 2014 01:25 PM PDT

Estimates on the WASH-related Global Burden of Disease
Posted: 07 Jul 2014 07:01 AM PDT

Solid Waste Management in the Pacific
Posted: 04 Jul 2014 05:08 AM PDT

A selection from email alerts:

• BMC Public Health Vol. 14; (2014) pp.624-624
Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums
Kwiringira, Japheth; Atekyereza, Peter; Niwagaba, Charles; Gunther, Isabel

Yeasmin, L.; Akter, S.; Islam, A.M.S.; Rahman, M.; Akashi, H.; Jesmin, S.

Experiences with stakeholder involvement in strategic sanitation planning: a case study of the city of Darkhan, Mongolia
Sigel, K.; Staudel, J.; Londong, J.

Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries
Prss-Ustn, A.; Bartram, J.; Clasen, T.; Colford, J. M.; Cumming, O.; Curtis, V.; Bonjour, S.; Dangou

Systematic review: Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression
Wolf, J.; Prss-Ustn, A.; Cumming, O.; Bartram, J.; Bonjour, S.; Cairncross, S.; Clasen, T.; Colford,

Estimating the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene on the global burden of disease: evolving and alternative methods
Clasen, T.; Pruss-Ustun, A.; Mathers, C. D.; Cumming, O.; Cairncross, S.; Colford, J. M.

Water, sanitation and hygiene standards for schools in low-cost settings
Byford, T.

Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area
Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.
We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619mS/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2mmol/L), HCO3 (11mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3mmol/L; average of 2.23mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2mmol/L and 6mmol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given that the cation exchange capacity of the aquifer was low (<6meq/100g) to effectively adsorb NH4. Phosphate transport was, on the other hand, greatly retarded and our results showed that this was due to the adsorption of P to calcite and the co-precipitation of P with calcite and rhodochrosite. Our findings suggest that shallow alluvial sandy aquifers underlying urban slum areas are an important sink of excessive nutrients leaching from on-site sanitation systems.

• PLoS ONE Vol. 9; No. 8 (2014)
User Perceptions of Shared Sanitation among Rural Households in Indonesia and Bangladesh
Nelson, Kali B.; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P.
The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. Objective This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Methods Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. Results In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Conclusion Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation facilities were clean and shared by a limited number of households, users of shared facilities often reported feeling both satisfied and safe.

• ECQUID NOVI VOL 35; ISSU 2 (2014) pp.40-57
Reality effect or media effect? Television’s moulding of the environmental sanitation agenda in Ghana
Ofori-Parku, S.S.

Shared sanitation and the prevalence of diarrhea in young children: Evidence from 51 countries, 2001-2011
Fuller, J.A.; Clasen, T.; Heijnen, M.; Eisenberg, J.N.S.

A cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce childhood diarrhea using hollow fiber water filter and/or hygiene-sanitation educational interventions
Lindquist, E.D.; George, C.M.; Perin, J.; de Calani, K.J.N.; Norman, W.R.; Davis, T.P.; Perry, H.

VOL 16; NUMB 3 (2014)
ISSN 1366-7017
• pp.425-441
Water in India: situation and prospects
Cronin, A.A.; Prakash, A.; Priya, S.; Coates, S.
• pp.454-469
The periurban water security problem: a case study of Hyderabad in Southern India
Prakash, A.
• pp.501-519
Scenarios for environmental sanitation in Brazil
Heller, L.; Rodrigues, L.A.; Silveira, R.B.
• pp.557-577
Analyzing the potential of community water systems: the case of AguaClara
Rivas, M.G.; Beers, K.; Warner, M.E.; Weber-Shirk, M.

VOL 58; (2014)
ISSN 0043-1354
• pp.50-61
Source tracking of leaky sewers: A novel approach combining fecal indicators in water and sediments
Guerineau, H. l.; Dorner, S.; Carriere, A.; McQuaid, N.; Sauve, S. b.; Aboulfadl, K.; Hajj-Mohamad,
In highly urbanized areas, surface water and groundwater are particularly vulnerable to sewer exfiltration. In this study, as an alternative to Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods, we propose a new method combining microbial and chemical fecal indicators (Escherichia coli (E. coli)) and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) analysis both in water and sediment samples and under different meteorological conditions. To illustrate the use of this method, wastewater exfiltration and subsequent infiltration were identified and quantified by a three-year field study in an urban canal. The gradients of concentrations observed suggest that several sources of fecal contamination of varying intensity may be present along the canal, including feces from resident animal populations, contaminated surface run-off along the banks and under bridge crossings, release from contaminated banks, entrainment of contaminated sediments, and most importantly sewage exfiltration. Calculated exfiltration–infiltration volumes varied between 0.6 and 15.7 m3/d per kilometer during dry weather, and between 1.1 and 19.5 m3/d per kilometer during wet weather. WWMPs were mainly diluted and degraded below detection limits in water. E. coli remains the best exfiltration indicator given a large volume of dilution and a high abundance in the wastewater source. WWMPs are effective for detecting cumulated contamination in sediments from a small volume source and are particularly important because E. coli on its own does not allow source tracking.
• pp.92-101
Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: Standards and prospects
Oron, G.; Adel, M.; Agmon, V.; Friedler, E.; Halperin, R.; Leshem, E.; Weinberg, D.
Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem.

VOL 12; NUMB 2 (2014)
ISSN 1477-8920
• pp.288-300
Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits
Abebe, L.S.; Smith, J.A.; Narkiewicz, S.; Oyanedel-Craver, V.; Conaway, M.; Singo, A.; Amidou, S.; M
• pp.301-309
Quantitative microbial risk assessment related to urban wastewater and lagoon water reuse in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire
Yapo, R.I.; Kone, B.; Bonfoh, B.; Cisse, G.; Zinsstag, J.; Nguyen-Viet, H.
• pp.318-331
Factors influencing householders’ access to improved water in low-income urban areas of Accra, Ghana
Mahama, A.; Anaman, K.A.; Osei-Akoto, I.
• pp.343-347
Safety of packaged water distribution limited by household recontamination in rural Cambodia
Holman, E.J.; Brown, J.

VOL 28; NUMB 10 (2014)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.2967-2980
Urban Household Water Demand in Beijing by 2020: An Agent-Based Model
Yuan, X. C.; Wei, Y. M.; Pan, S. Y.; Jin, J. L.
Beijing is faced with severe water scarcity due to rapid socio-economic development and population expansion, and a guideline for water regulation has been released to control the volume of national water use. To cope with water shortage and meet regulation goal, it has great significance to study the variations of water demand. In this paper, an agent-based model named HWDP is developed for the prediction of urban household water demand in Beijing. The model involves stochastic behaviors and feedbacks caused by two agent roles which are government agent and household agent. The government agent adopts economic and propagandist means to make household agent optimize its water consumption. Additionally, the consumption is also affected by the basic water demand deduced from extended linear expenditure system. The results indicate that the total water demand of urban households in Beijing will increase to 317.5 million cubic meters by 2020, while the water price keeps growing at a low level. However, it would drop to 294.9 million cubic meters with high growth of water price and low increment in per capita disposable income. Finally, some policy recommendations on water regulation are made.

VOL 28; NUMB 11 (2014)
ISSN 0920-4741
• pp.3715-3726
Water Saving and Energy Reduction through Pressure Management in Urban Water Distribution Networks
Xu, Q.; Chen, Q.; Ma, J.; Blanckaert, K.; Wan, Z.
Water shortages and climate change are worldwide issues. Reduction in water leakage in distribution networks as well as the associated energy saving and environmental impacts have recently received increased attention by scientists and water industries. Pressure management has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reduction in water leakage. This study conducted a real-world water pressure regulation experiment to establish the pressure-leakage relationship in a district metering area (DMA) of the water distribution network in Beijing, China. Results showed that flow into the DMA was sensitive to inlet water pressure. A 5.6 m reduction in inlet pressure (from 38.8 m to 33.2 m) led to an 83 % reduction (12.1 l/s) in minimal night flow, which is a good approximator of leakage. These reductions resulted in 62,633 m3 of water saved every year for every km pipe, as well as associated savings of 1.1?×?106 MJ of energy and 68 t of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. The results of this study provide decision makers with advice for reducing leakage in water distribution networks with associated energy and environmental benefits.
• pp.3745-3759
Distribution Network Assessment using EPANET for Intermittent and Continuous Water Supply
Mohapatra, S.; Sargaonkar, A.; Labhasetwar, P. K.
Drawbacks of intermittent water supply system and inability to shift to continuous supply mode is the main challenge in developing countries. The suitability of the infrastructure laid over past two to three decades to meet the 24/7 demand of todays population is the issue for many water mangers. The present study addresses this issue using EPANET software for a pilot study area in Nagpur city, India. GIS maps, field survey data, remote sensing data and in-situ measurements of pressure and water quality are used in model simulation study. Total 96 artificial reservoirs are inserted into the network which replicate the end-user practices of excess water withdrawal. Reservoirs are assumed connected to damand nodes with equivalent diameter pipes for intermittent supply simulation. For continuous supply, demand multipliers are derived using Monte Carlo simulation. Bulk decay coefficient 0.17 day-1 for residual chlorine is used in water quality simulation. Simulation scenario of intermittency indicates existing network is not suitable to maintain desired headloss, and pressure in most of the pipes is very low (<1 m). Water age and water quality problems reveal that rehabilitation of distribution mains and critical pipes in the central part is primarily important before implementing 24/7 water supply scheme in the study area.

VOL 490; (2014)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.301-312
Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria
Christenson, E.; Bain, R.; Wright, J.; Aondoakaa, S.; Hossain, R.; Bartram, J.
Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy.
• pp.509-513
Rural: urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water
Bain, R. E.; Wright, J. A.; Christenson, E.; Bartram, J. K.
Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth – over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata).

VOL 493; (2014)
ISSN 0048-9697
• pp.185-196
Photovoltaic powered ultraviolet and visible light-emitting diodes for sustainable point-of-use disinfection of drinking waters
Lui, G. Y.; Roser, D.; Corkish, R.; Ashbolt, N.; Jagals, P.; Stuetz, R.
For many decades, populations in rural and remote developing regions will be unable to access centralised piped potable water supplies, and indeed, decentralised options may be more sustainable. Accordingly, improved household point-of-use (POU) disinfection technologies are urgently needed. Compared to alternatives, ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection is very attractive because of its efficacy against all pathogen groups and minimal operational consumables. Though mercury arc lamp technology is very efficient, it requires frequent lamp replacement, involves a toxic heavy metal, and their quartz envelopes and sleeves are expensive, fragile and require regular cleaning. An emerging alternative is semiconductor-based units where UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are powered by photovoltaics (PV). Our review charts the development of these two technologies, their current status, and challenges to their integration and POU application. It explores the themes of UV-C-LEDs, non-UV-C LED technology (e.g. UV-A, visible light, Advanced Oxidation), PV power supplies, PV/LED integration and POU suitability. While UV-C LED technology should mature in the next 10years, research is also needed to address other unresolved barriers to in situ application as well as emerging research opportunities especially UV-A, photocatalyst/photosensitiser use and pulsed emission options.
VOL 48; (2014)
ISSN 0195-9255
• pp.53-61
Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam
Slunge, D.; Tran, T. T.

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LIBRARY : Urbanisation of peri-urban regions: challenges and opportunities for security of water, food and liveabiiity of future cities; The security of water, food, energy and liveability of cities: challenges and opportunities for peri-urban futures
VOL 71; (2014)
ISSN 0921-092X
• pp.113-120
Thirsty Cities: The Urban Water Footprint and the Peri-urban Interface, a Four City Case Study from West Africa
Drechsel, P.; Cofie, O.O.; Amoah, P.
• pp.181-200
Perspectives on Urban Sanitation, Liveability and Peri-urban Futures of Indian Cities
Amerasinghe, P.; Raman, R.
• pp.201-218
Decentralised Wastewater Management for Improving Sanitation in Peri-urban India
Ojha, S.
• pp.219-232
Wastewater Treatment Capacity, Food Production and Health Risk in Peri-urban Areas: A Comparison of Three Cities
Van Rooijen, D.; Smout, I.; Drechsel, P.; Biggs, T.
• pp.233-242
Urban Agriculture: A Response to the Food Supply Crisis in Kampala City, Uganda
Sabiiti, E.N.; Katongole, C.B
• pp.257-268
Who Feeds the Cities? A Comparison of Urban, Peri-urban and Rural Food Flows in Ghana
Drechsel, P.
• pp.301-310
Challenges and Opportunities for Recycling Excreta for Peri-urban Agriculture in Urbanising Countries
Cofie, O.; Van Rooijen, D.; Nikiema, J.
• pp.311-326
Nutrient Recycling from Organic Wastes Through Viable Business Models in Peri-urban Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa
Danso, G.; Drechsel, P.